Romeo & Juliet
William Shakespeare

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Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare's most famous tragedy and one of the world's most enduring love stories, derives its plot from several sixteenth century sources. Shakespeare's primary inspiration for the play was Arthur Brooke's Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet (1562), a long and dense poem. Brooke's poem, in turn, was based on a French prose version written by Pierre Boiastuau (1559), which was derived from an Italian version written by Bandello in 1554. Bandello's poem, meanwhile, was an interpretation of Luigi da Porto's 1525 version of a story by Masuccio Salernitano (1476).

The plot of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet remains mostly true to Brooke's poem, though Shakespeare exercised artistic license in several instances. For example, as he often does, Shakespeare
telescopes the events from Brooke's poem (which took place over 90 days) into a few days in the play. Additionally, Shakespeare's Juliet is thirteen, while Brooke wrote her as sixteen. The time compression and the younger Juliet enhance the youthful nature of the central relationship, emphasizing its passion and newness.
external image 10548582.pngOne of the most powerful aspects of Romeo and Juliet is Shakespeare's use of language.
The characters curse, vow oaths, banish each other, and, in general, demonstrate great verbal dexterity through an overuse of action verbs. In addition, the play is saturated with oxymorons, puns, paradoxes, and double entendres. Shakespeare even calls the use of names into question, most famously in Juliet's balcony soliloquy. Shakespeare also executed a rather strong shift in the language spoken by both Romeo and Juliet after they fall in love. Whereas Romeo is hopelessly normal in his courtship before meeting Juliet, after he falls in love, his language becomes infinitely richer and stronger.

Romeo and Juliet also deals with the issue of authoritarian law and order. Many of Shakespeare's plays feature
characters that represent the unalterable force of the law, such as the Duke in The Comedy of Errors and Prince Escalus in Romeo and Juliet. In this play, the law attempts to stop the civil disorder, and even banishes Romeo at the midpoint. However, as in The Comedy of Errors, the law is eventually overpowered by the forces of love.

There are several different sources that inform the contemporary text of Romeo and Juliet. external image Romeo_and_juliette_(1968).jpg
Romeo and Juliet was first published
in quarto in 1597, and republished in a new edition only two years later. The second copy was used to created yet a third quarto in 1609, from which both the 1623 Quarto and First Folio are derived. The first quarto is generally considered a bad quarto, or an illicit copy created from the recollections of several actors rather than from the writer's original material. The second quarto seems to be taken from Shakespeare's rough draft, and thus has some inconsistent speech and some lines which Shakespeare apparently meant to eliminate. Please see the "About Shakespearian Theater" section of this note for more guidance as to these concepts.

Romeo and Juliet was popular during Shakespeare's time, but over the centuries it has become nothing short of omnipresent. It is arguably the most-filmed play of all time, and has been adapted 4 times to date - first by George Cukor in 1936, then by Franco Zeffirelli in 1968, Baz Luhrmann in 1996, and most recently, by Carlo Carlei in 2013. John Madden's Academy-Award winning film
Shakespeare in Love// is a fictional account of Shakespeare's life while writing the play. It was the basis for Prokofiev's famous ballet, and has inspired numerous Operas, pop and jazz songs, books, games, and musicals.


Character List


Romeo
Sixteen-year-old Romeo Montague falls in love with Juliet Capulet at a masquerade, thus igniting their tragic affair. Romeo is defined by a self-indulgent melancholy at the beginning of the play, but later becomes a much more active and committed character, which is clear when he kills Tybalt. Romeo's final act of passion is when, believing his beloved Juliet is dead, he takes his own life. Throughout the play, Romeo embraces an idealistic view of love, which explains why he falls for Juliet so quickly and passionately.

Lord Montague
Romeo's father and a mortal enemy of the Capulets.

Lady Montague
Romeo's mother, who dies from a broken heart after Romeo is banished from Verona.

Benvolio
Romeo's cousin, and a staunch pacifist.

Abram
A Montague servingman involved in the street brawl in 1.1.

Balthasar
Romeo's servant, who is involved in the street fight of 1.1, and later assists Romeo in the final Act.

Friar Laurence
A older man and a friend to Romeo. He officiates the wedding of Romeo and Juliet, hoping to gain political peace through the union. When that doesn't work out, he concocts the plan to reunite the star-crossed lovers by giving Juliet a sleeping potion - but the plan backfires.

Juliet
Juliet Capulet is a thirteen-year-old girl who falls in love with Romeo Montague. She has a strong will and a rebellious streak - she knows what she wants. Defined by a shrewd intelligence and pronounced agency, Juliet is in many ways a more masculine character than Romeo is, even if the patriarchy of her family limits her power. Her final decision to kill herself speaks to her pronounced focus and commitment.

Lord Capulet
Juliet's father and a temperamental bully who initially pretends to consider his daughter's welfare while arranging her marriage, but later demands her quick union with Count Paris. Her father's pressure is a catalyst in the final sequence of events that ends in Juliet's suicide.

Lady Capulet
Juliet's mother is submissive to her husband, and refuses to intercede for Juliet when their daughter expresses concern over the arranged marriage to Count Paris.

Tybalt
Juliet's hot-headed cousin, whose penchant for violence leads to the Act III street fight - ending in his own death as well as Mercutio's.

Pertruccio
Tybalt's page

Nurse
Juliet's nurse is ostensibly the young girl's confidante but also harbors a certain amount of resentment that makes her useless when it comes to saving the girl. Nurse often makes trouble for Juliet by refusing to give her information quickly, and later turns into a traitor by arguing Juliet should marry Paris, even though she knows about her secret marriage to Romeo.

Peter
A Capulet servingman who serves as great comic relief in Act I when he is unable to read the list of invitees to the Capulet ball.

Sampson
A Capulet servingman who is involved in the street brawl in 1.1.

Gregory
A Capulet servingman who is involved in the street brawl in 1.1.

Prince Escalus
The ruler of Verona who provides for and represents law and order in the city. He frequently attempts to cede the violence between the Montagues and Capulets, but he finds himself powerless against true love.

Mercutio
Romeo's friend, a kinsman of the Prince, and one of the play's most colorful characters. In the early Acts, Mercutio displays a pronounced wit and colorful language. However, by Act III, as he lies dying after the street fight, he delivers a damning speech on the feuding houses. Mercutio's death marks the play's turn into tragedy.

Paris
Count Paris is Juliet's suitor - Lord Capulet supports the union but Juliet despises him. Though never as insidious as Lord Capulet, Paris behaves arrogantly once the marriage date is set. He confronts Romeo in Act V, which leads to the Count's death in battle.

Apothecary
Shakespeare describes the apothecary of Mantua as a skeleton - so he appears to personify Death itself. A poor man, he is easily convinced to sell Romeo the poison that he uses to kill himself.

Citizens of the Watch
These unspeaking characters often arrive at the scene of a street brawl, representing the forces of law and order that combat the disorder wrought by the family feud.






Silas MarnerWeaver of Ravenloeby George Eliot
Exiled by superstition and betrayal from Lantern Yard, and cut off from faith and human love, forexternal image 9788492516438_p0_v1_s260x420.JPG fifteen years the solitary simple-hearted weaver Silas Marner has plied his loom in Raveloe and devoted himself to the amassing of a hoard of golden guineas. Silas's chance of redemption, when it appears one New Year's Eve, is intimately connected with the fate of Godfrey Cass, son of the village Squire. Clandestinely married, then blackmailed by his dissolute brother Dunstan, Godfrey like Silas has been trapped by his past, from which he is seeking to escape. Humorous, richly symbolic, subtly characterized and meticulously plotted, George Eliot's 'sudden inspiration' in this slim novel of rural England cut across her plans for Romola, her vast Italian Renaissance epic.

About the Author:

George Eliot is the pseudonym, or pen name, of the English author Mary Anne or Marian Evans (1819-1880).

John Morley, in his essay titled "The Life of George Eliot" (1904) recalls Eliot's frustration towards the 'habit' of literary biography. She herself lived a controversial and unconventional life, has been the subject of much scholarly debate, and been the study of many biographers. In her time many were shocked by some of her choices in life 'unbecoming a woman', but she eventually earned the deserved esteem of an accomplished author. Her works stand on their own, not to be overshadowed by her personal life. Among the best of the Victorian writers, Eliot deals with themes of social change and triumphs of the heart and has a remarkable talent for showing us the depth and scope of Provincial English life: its classes, pretensions, and hypocrisies. Many of her novels today are included in the canon of classic 19th century literary works. Some have been adapted to film, many still in print today.

First edition title page.
First edition title page.
Although she would use a number of spelling variations of her name over the years, she was born Mary Anne Evans on 22 November 1819 at the family home "South Farm" on the Arbury Estate in Warwickshire, England. She was the youngest daughter of Robert Evans (1773-1849) and his second wife Christiana Pearson Evans. Mary had two step-siblings, Robert and Fanny, and two full siblings, Chrissey and Isaac. Her father was a stern but loving man, working under great authority for the Newdigate family as a land agent and builder. Robert is likely in part inspiration for Eliot's fictional characters Adam Bede (1859) and Caleb Garth in Middlemarch (1871-2). Unlike the many poor tenants who worked the estates' land and surrounding mines, the Evans's enjoyed a comfortable life. Young Mary attended Chilvers Coton Church with her family and became an avid reader, spending much time in the library. She was very close to Chrissey and devoted to her older brother Isaac, although in later years they would disagree on most matters familial and religious. It was very difficult for the shy and introverted Mary to see him go off to boarding school.


Her own formal education at boarding school started in 1824. She was next enrolled at Mrs. Wallington's School at Nuneaton where the school's governess, Miss Maria Lewis took her under her wing. Mary found in her evangelical piety purpose and comfort; she became her mentor and they held a long correspondence after Mary left the school. Nuneaton would play a large role in Eliot's fictional work Scenes of Clerical Life (1858). At school in Coventry Mary learned to play the piano, studied languages, and began writing stories and poetry. She fully embraced her faith and was a pious and serious student; however, like Maggie Tulliver in The Mill on the Floss, she would come to question her faith.

After her mother died of cancer in 1836, Mary moved back to the family home "Griff House" on the Arbury Estate. Isaac
The George Eliot statue at Nuneaton. George Eliot referred to Nuneaton as a place called Milby in her early works.
The George Eliot statue at Nuneaton. George Eliot referred to Nuneaton as a place called Milby in her early works.
was back home living with his father in preparation to take over his position on the estate, and Chrissy was also there. Mary helped her run the household and take care of their father. He bought many books for Mary and hired a tutor for her because she had done so well in school--he wanted her to continue her studies. She also found time to write; the Christian Observer published her first poem in 1840. The next year she moved with her now-retired father to "Bird Grove" in Foleshill, near Coventry and embarked on a period of great change.


For many years Mary had been self-conscious about her appearance and been plagued by self-doubt; she was afraid of becoming a spinster and tended to melancholy. And she was questioning her Christian faith and forming her own opinions of Victorian society. Her soul searching resulted in her deciding not to attend church anymore, which strained relations with her brother and father. But, another world of purpose and comfort had opened to her; her social circle widened as she was welcomed into Coventry's intellectual circle. She became friends with irreverent freethinkers like Cara and Charles Bray and started reading non-religious literary works such as those of Thomas Carlyle, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Sir Walter Scott. She also met publisher John Chapman who printed her first translation, Life of Jesus, in 1846. Another translation of hers', Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity, was published in 1854.

George Eliot (1819 – 22 December 1880), aged 30, by the Swiss artist Alexandre-Louis-François d'Albert-Durade (1804-86), whose family she lived with while in Switzerland. [1] Source: University of Adelaide [2] [3] Licence: PD because author died more than 100 years ago.
George Eliot (1819 – 22 December 1880), aged 30, by the Swiss artist Alexandre-Louis-François d'Albert-Durade (1804-86), whose family she lived with while in Switzerland. [1] Source: University of Adelaide [2] [3] Licence: PD because author died more than 100 years ago.
When her father died in 1849 after a lengthy illness, Mary travelled with the Brays to Italy and Switzerland. In Geneva she met the D'Albert Durades family and revelled in her freedom. Her father had left her a small yearly income, just enough to live on, and she moved to London in hopes of becoming a journalist as Marian Evans. She wrote for the Westminster Review. Her keen intellect, years of religious study, knowledge of languages and literature, and work in translations proved invaluable. She was given wide-ranging editorial control and flexed her might as a writer in the non-fiction vein, her articles published anonymously. She enjoyed a particularly unorthodox position as a single working woman in a mid-1800's male-dominated industry; she was independent and free to make her own choices. Marian was also attending lectures and the theatre, and becoming acquainted with many figures in the publishing world including Charles Dickens, Wilkie Collins, and prolific author, philosopher, and critic George Henry Lewes (1817-1878).


Marian's most prolific and successful period of writing started with the serialisation in Blackwood's Magazine of her Scenes of Clerical Life (1858). A collection of three stories, it was her first work published under her pseudonym George Eliot. There were a few reasons for her choosing a pen name at this point in her life. Although she had been published anonymously in the Westminster Review, many now knew it was she who wrote with the sharp and cunning intellect that cut away conventions and exposed the mediocrity to be found in literature of the day. Neither male nor female authors were immune to her scrutiny. She did not want her reputation to precede her works. Having a male pen name set a tone for her fiction apart from the feminine genre of cookbooks and domestic moral tales.

Adam Bede (1859) was her first full-length novel. It was an immediate success. The Lifted Veil (1859) reflects the
George Eliot: The Last Victorian by Kathryn Hughes
George Eliot: The Last Victorian by Kathryn Hughes
personal struggles Eliot went through as a woman and author in the spotlight since the success of Adam Bede. She still felt self-doubt at times and had bouts of depression--this sensitive inner-life reflected in many of the portraits painted of her. Eliot's most autobiographical novel The Mill on the Floss (1860) was followed by Silas Marner: the Weaver of Raveloe (1861). Her epic historical novel for which she did much research, Romola (1862-3), is based on the life of Dominican Monk Savonarola. It was followed by Brother Jacob (1864) and Felix Holt: The Radical (1866), a political story set in the time of the Great Reform Act of 1832. Eliot wrote many poems including her epic "The Spanish Gypsy" (1868) and "How Lisa Loved the King" (1869). Other poems would be included in The Legend of Jubal and Other Poems (1870). Eliot's masterpiece Middlemarch (1871-2) was followed by Daniel Deronda (1876). Around this time the Lewes's went to live at "The Heights" in Witley, Surrey. George had been sick for some time, and died on 30 November 1878. Eliot was profoundly grieved, but found some comfort in editing his Problems of Life and Mind. She was also working on her own last work, a collection of essays titled Impressions of Theophrastus Such (1879). While Eliot isolated herself from family and friends, she did allow banker John Walter Cross to visit her. Over twenty years his senior, Cross asked Eliot to marry him. Initially she was very reluctant, but in an odd turn of events she accepted. They were married in May of 1880 and Eliot reverted back to her name Mary Ann, only dropping the e. While it was a convention she had rejected for so many years, her marriage did contribute to reconciliation with her brother Isaac. Settling at 4 Cheyne Walk in Chelsea, London, the Cross's marriage would be short-lived.


Eliot's grave in Highgate Cemetery
Eliot's grave in Highgate Cemetery
George Eliot died on 22 December 1880. She now rests with Lewes in Highgate Cemetery in London, England. Her epitaph reads: "Of those immortal dead who live again, In minds made better by their presence." Here rests the body of GEORGE ELIOT. (MARY ANN CROSS).


Although Eliot's wish to be buried in Westminster Abbey was not granted, in 1980 a memorial was placed in Poet's Corner in her honour, among other such esteemed literary figures as William Blake, Aphra Behn, and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

Elbert Hubbard, in his Little Journeys, Vol. 1: Good Men and Great compares Eliot
Mary Ann Evans (“George Eliot”) is buried in Highgate Cemetery in London, along with Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and others.
Mary Ann Evans (“George Eliot”) is buried in Highgate Cemetery in London, along with Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, and others.
to Shakespeare--their lives, loves, and works;

  • Warwickshire gave to the world William Shakespeare. It also gave Mary Ann Evans. No one will question that Shakespeare's is the greatest name in English literature; and among writers living or dead, in England or out of it, no woman has ever shown us power equal to that of George Eliot, in the subtle clairvoyance which divines the inmost play of passions, the experience that shows human capacity for contradiction, and the indulgence that is merciful because it understands.

Biography written by C. D. Merriman for Jalic Inc. Copyright Jalic Inc. 2007. All Rights Reserved.

Silas Marner - List of Characters

Silas Marner – Weaver around whom the story revolves. He is pale and has protuberant brown eyes. He is a simple and humble man, single-minded in working for a purpose – first his religion in Lantern Yard, then for his gold, and finally for his adopted daughter Eppie.
William Dane – "Friend" who betrayed the young Silas in Lantern Yard.
Molly Farren – Drug-addicted, secret wife of Godfrey Cass, with whom she had the daughter later adopted by Silas.
Eppie – Daughter of Godfrey Cass and Molly Farren. She was adopted and so named by Silas Marner.


THE GENTRY

Squire Cass – Holder of the highest position in Raveloe society. A solid, gruff man of "extravagant habits and bad husbandry," generally lax in family matters.
Godfrey Cass – Eldest son of the Squire. "A fine, open-faced, good-natured young man," but weak-willed, irresolute, and lacking in moral stamina.
Dunstan Cass – Second son of the Squire. "A spiteful, jeering fellow," thickset, heavy looking, selfish, and dishonest.
Mr. Lammeter – A tall, erect, dignified gentleman. Father of Nancy and Priscilla Lammeter.
Nancy Lammeter – The village beauty, delicate and dainty, but efficient and hardworking. Although a bit prim and proper, she also is generous and loving to her family and her husband Godfrey.
Priscilla Lammeter – Talkative elder sister of Nancy. Plain but cheerful, with good humor and a generous spirit.
Mr. Crackenthrop – The rector, who was "a merry-eyed, small-feature, gray-haired man."
Mrs. Crackenthrop – His wife, "a small, blinking woman, who fidgeted incessantly."
Mr. Osgood – Head of the village’s oldest landowning family, and brother-in-law to Mr. Lammeter.
Mrs. Osgood – A lady of some formality in company, but devoted to her Lammeter nieces and quietly proud of her orderly husband.
Mr. Kimble – The apothecary and country doctor. A thin and agile man, "vivacious, clever, almost as devoted to his profession as to his game of cards."
Mrs. Kimble – A stout, double-chinned woman, good-natured and proud of her husband’s quick wit. Sister of Squire Cass.
Bryce and Keating – Dustan Cass fellow hunters.


THE VILLAGERS

Dolly Winthrop – The wheelwright’s wife and godmother to Eppie. A motherly, comfortable, neighborly goodwife, who is hardworking and content. She comforts Silas when his gold is taken, helps him raise Eppie, and guides him in becoming part of village life.
Aaron Winthrop – Dolly’s youngest son, the honest, hardworking young gardener whom Eppie marries.
Ben Winthrop – Dolly’s husband, the village wheelwright and leader of the church choir, and a regular at the Rainbow Inn.
Mr. Snell – Landlord of the Rainbow Inn, who was always careful to take both sides of an argument or none.
Bob Lundy - The butcher and cousin of Mr. Snell. "A jolly, smiling, red-haired man."
Mr. Dowlas - The farrier (veterinarian). "A man intensely opposed to compromise" and said to be "the negative spirit in the company, and proud of the position."
Mr. Tookey - Assistant tailor and deputy clerk of the parish. Generally the butt of the Rainbow crowd's jokes.
Mr. Macey - Elderly tailor and parish clerk. Full of village history and gossip, a man with "an air of complacency, slight seasoned with criticism."
Jem Rodney - Molecatcher and "a known poacher, and otherwise disreputable," whom Silas wrongly accuses of stealing the gold.
Solomon Macey - The tailor's brother, "a small, hale old man," who fiddled for the dances around the countryside.
Sally Oates - Cobbler's wife whom Silas cures.
Sarah - Girl to whom Silas had been engaged in Lantern Yard.
Master Kench - The constable.
Justice Malam - The magistrate.


KEY FACTS - Silas Marner, Weaver of Raveloe
FULL TITLE · Silas Marner: The Weaver of Raveloe
Silas finds Eppie
Silas finds Eppie


AUTHOR · George Eliot

TYPE OF WORK · Novel

GENRE · Victorian novel, novel of manners, pastoral fiction

LANGUAGE · English

TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN · 1860–61, London

DATE OF FIRST PUBLICATION · 1861

PUBLISHER · William Blackwood and Sons

NARRATOR · An anonymous omniscient speaker with no part in the plot

POINT OF VIEW · The narrator speaks in the omniscient third person, describing what the characters are seeing, feeling, and thinking and what they are failing to see, feel, and think. The narrator uses the first person singular “I,” but at no point enters the story as a character. Near the beginning, a personal story unrelated to the action of the novel is relayed to provide corroborating evidence for a generalization, hinting that the narrator is a real person.

TONE · Morally uncompromising, slightly condescending, but nevertheless deeply sympathetic to characters’ failings

TENSE · Past

SETTING (TIME) · The “early years” of the nineteenth century

SETTING (PLACE) · Raveloe, a fictional village in the English countryside

PROTAGONIST · Silas Marner

MAJOR CONFLICT · Silas Marner lives for a long time without any connection to other human beings or his youthful faith in God. Though he does not struggle to find purpose and connection in his life, the novel is about his recovery of purpose, faith, and community through his finding Eppie.

RISING ACTION · Silas spends fifteen years in relative isolation, amassing a hoard of gold coins that is then stolen by Dunstan Cass.

CLIMAX · Eppie appears in Silas’s cottage, and he decides to adopt her.

FALLING ACTION · When Godfrey fails to claim Eppie as his daughter and marries Nancy, Silas raises Eppie. Silas’s love and care for Eppie make him a revered member of the Raveloe community, ending his isolation. Sixteen years later, Godfrey admits that he is Eppie’s father and tries to adopt her, but she elects to stay with Silas.

THEMES · The individual versus the community; character as destiny; the interdependence of faith and community

MOTIFS · The natural world; domesticity; class

SYMBOLS · Silas’s loom; Lantern Yard; the hearth

FORESHADOWING · Silas opening his door to look outside as Eppie toddles toward his cottage; Mr. Macey telling Silas his money will be returned to him; Dunsey claiming that he always lands on his feet.

Silas Marner TV adaptation on PBS's Masterpiece Theatremarner.eppie.jpg
This TV adaptation of George Elliot's 1861 novel Silas Marner was one of the rare single-episode presentations of PBS' Masterpiece Theatre. Ben Kingsley plays Silas Marner, who after being falsely accused of a crime and banished from his own town, becomes a miserly recluse in the small British __community__ of Raveloe. When his precious cache of money is stolen by the town wastrel (Jonathan Coy) Silas can see no reason for going on with life. He is transformed from misanthrope to rehabilitated human being through the love of Eppie, an orphaned child left in his care. Patsy Kensit is featured as the grown-up Eppie. Originally taped in 1985 for the BBC, Silas Marner was first shown in the US on March 15, 1987. ~ Hal Erickson, Rovi
external image Mpt-logo.pngOminous __music__, misty vales, and the fixed gaze of entranced eyes set a somber mood at the opening of this 1985 made-for-TV adaptation of Silas Marner, the classic George Eliot (1819-1880) tale of greed and redemption set in early 19th century England. Ben Kingsley wears the threadbare mantle of Marner, a linen weaver exiled by church members in Lantern Yard after they falsely accuse him of theft. Book lovers know the rest of the tale: how Marner resettles in Raveloe, shuns the world, becomes a coin-hoarding miser, and redeems himself by rearing an abandoned child. But even those who have read the book will surely enjoy this video version of the novel, for it superbly depicts what readers can only imagine: Marner's lonely days in his shadowy cottage, his greed at the sight of his money hoard, his despondency at its theft, his mysterious trances, and his quiet joy at caring for a little girl whose golden hair teaches him the real meaning of "treasure." In all ways, Kingsley is a perfect Marner: Slight of frame, spare of __words__, simple, complicated, cold, warm. The film is rich in symbolism and imagery. Skies brood, fireplaces glow. The poorest of the poor are wealthy with love. And Marner's loom thumps and clacks with the steady rhythm of hope. The film pays close attention to period detail, presenting clopping horses, magnificent castles, lively jigs, country church bells, and the wedding of commoners who enjoy being commoners. Carl Davis enhances the atmosphere with a music score mimicking the moods of the characters and settings. And the supporting actors undergird Kingsley's splendid performance with wonderful performances of their own. The film is ideal for English students -- or for anyone who enjoys a good movie that enchants and enthralls. ~ Mike Cummings, Rovi

Cast


Frederick Treves - Mr. Lammeter; Angela Pleasence - Molly; Patsy Kensit - Eppie; Kenneth MacDonald - Bryce

Credit
Giles Foster - Director, Carl Davis - Composer (Music Score), George Eliot - Book Author
Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/silas-marner-film#ixzz2eL0rxGou

Silas Marner Chapter Questions

See back of book, pages 249-254
Answer all questions in complete sentences.



external image crusoetitle.jpg?itok=kp6fCaBy

ROBINSON CRUSOE
by Daniel Defoe
Loneliness and the Human Experience
Robinson Crusoe is the tale of a lonely human being who manages to survive for years without any human companionship. It's a story about the different ways that men cope with reality when hardship comes, but it's also the tale of a man creating his own reality, rescuing a savage and fashioning his own world out of the untamed wilderness of a desert island.

The tale has influenced many other tales, including The Swiss Family Robinson, Philip Quarll, and Peter Wilkins. Defoe followed up the tale with his own sequel, The Further Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, but that tale was not met with a much success as the first novel. In any case, the figure of Robinson Crusoe has become an important archetypal figure in literature--Robinson Crusoe was described by Samuel T. Coleridge as "the universal man."

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BEFORE YOU READ THE BOOK: You probably have heard the name Robinson Crusoe and know that he is stranded on a deserted island for many years. Before you read about how he deals with this situation, think about how a person of today might respond to it. Imagine that you are on a sinking ship and can take ten things with you in a lifeboat that is bound for a nearby uninhabited island. What would you bring? Make a list of these items, then rank their importance from one to ten. Next to each item, write a short explanation of why you chose it. Share your list with the class and keep track of how many people picked similar things.

Biographical Notes - Daniel Defoe

Early Life


Daniel Foe, born circa 1660, was the son of James Foe, a London butcher. Daniel later changed his name to Daniel Defoe, wanting to sound more gentlemanly.

Defoe graduated from an academy at Newington Green, run by the Reverend Charles Morton. Not long after, in 1683, he went into business, having given up an earlier intent on becoming a dissenting minister. He traveled often, selling such goods as wine and wool, but was rarely out of debt. He went bankrupt in 1692 (paying his debts for nearly a decade thereafter), and by 1703, decided to leave the business industry altogether.

Acclaimed Writer


Having always been interested in politics, Defoe published his first literary piece, a political pamphlet, in 1683. He continued to write political works, working as a journalist, until the early 1700s. Many of Defoe's works during this period targeted support for King William III, also known as "William Henry of Orange." Some of his most popular works include The True-Born Englishman, which shed light on racial prejudice in England following attacks on William for being a foreigner; and the Review, a periodical that was published from 1704 to 1713, during the reign of Queen Anne, King William II's successor. Political opponents of Defoe's repeatedly had him imprisoned for his writing in 1713.

Defoe took a new literary path in 1719, around the age daniel-defoe.jpg59, when he published Robinson Crusoe, a fiction novel based on several short essays that he had composed over the years.

A handful of novels followed soon after—often with rogues and criminals as lead characters—including Moll Flanders, Colonel Jack, Captain Singleton, Journal of the Plague Year and his last major fiction piece, Roxana (1724).

In the mid-1720s, Defoe returned to writing editorial pieces, focusing on such subjects as morality, politics and the breakdown of social order in England. Some of his later works include Everybody's Business is Nobody's Business (1725); the nonfiction essay "Conjugal : or, Matrimonial Whoredom" (1727); and a follow-up piece to the "Conjugal Lewdness" essay, entitled "A Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed."

Death and Legacy


Defoe died on April 24, 1731.

While little is known about Daniel Defoe's personal life—largely due to a lack of documentation—Defoe is remembered today as a prolific journalist and author, and has been lauded for his hundreds of fiction and nonfiction works, from political pamphlets to other journalistic pieces, to fantasy-filled novels. The characters that Defoe created in his fiction books have been brought to life countless times over the years, in editorial works, as well as stage and screen productions.


© 2013 A+E Networks. All rights reserved.
Chapter Questions
Study Questions – Chapter 1

1. What kind of life would Robinson Crusoe have had if he had obeyed his father and remained at home?

2. What signs does Defoe give us that Crusoe is not suited for what his father calls “the middle way”?

3. How does Crusoe try to get his mother to help him fulfill his dreams?

4. Who suggests Crusoe leave home and go on board the ship?

5. What makes Crusoe forget his vow to return home if God saves him from the first storm?

6. How does the second storm differ from the first one?

7. How are the men finally saved when the boat sinks?

8. How does the ship’s master contrast his reasons for going to sea with Crusoe’s reasons?

9. What is the captain trying to convince Crusoe to do?

10. In your own words, analyze the last sentence of this chapter. What do you think it means? Do you agree?

11. In this Chapter Crusoe’s father gives him advice. What piece of advice have you received from yourparents or relatives? Was it good advice? Why or why not?

Study Questions – Chapter 2

1. What does the master of the ship going to Guinea teach Crusoe?

2. What happens that makes Crusoe say his father’s earlier prophecy had “come to pass”?

3. What sorts of work does Crusoe do for his new master at Sallee?

4. What combination of lucky events results in Crusoe being able to gain his freedom?

5. How does Crusoe treat the adult Moor who is on board ship with him? Does this behavior seem fair toyou? Explain.

6. What is smart about Crusoe’s attempt to prevent being followed?

7. How is Crusoe able to impress the Africans he sees on the shore? What do they give him in return?

8. How is the Portugese captain very generous and fair in his treatment of Crusoe?

9. Do you think Crusoe is generous and fair in his treatment of Xury? Explain.

10. Write a short dialog between Crusoe’s master and the Moor upon his return to shore.

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Study Questions – Chapter 3

1. Summarize Crusoe’s successes in Brazil.

2. Why is Crusoe not content with these successes?

3. What is the purpose of Crusoe’s voyage back to Guinea?

4. What is important about the date on which Crusoe sets out on this voyage?

5. Why does he call the date “an evil hour”?

6. Why do the men have very little chance of reaching shore, even in the small boat?

7. What details does Defoe use to make us realize how desperate Crusoe’s situation is once he is in the seaalone?

8. Write an alternate title for this chapter and explain your choice.

Study Questions – Chapter 4

1. Why should the men have stayed on board the ship during the storm?

2. How is Crusoe able to reach the ship easier than he would have expected when he first came on shore?

3. How does Crusoe solve the problem of getting the things he wants back on the island?

4. What is clever about the way Crusoe lands everything safely back on the island?

5. From the order in which he takes things to the island, what can you tell Crusoe thinks is most important to have?

6. Why does Crusoe climb to the top of a steep hill?

7. Show how the places Crusoe sleeps become increasingly secure by explaining all three.

8. What is Crusoe’s attitude when he finds the money on the ship?

9. How is this reaction a change from his earlier ambitions?

10. What eventually happens to the ship?

Study Questions – Chapter 5

1. What features of the site cause Crusoe to build his home where he does?
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2. How does Crusoe make his home as safe as possible from the beginning?

3. What particularly worries Crusoe about lightning?

4. How does Crusoe get his first meat?

5. When Crusoe is facing feelings of despair, how is he able to reason his way out of this mood?

6. Describe the calendar Crusoe creates to keep track of time.

7. Why does Crusoe decide to write down his account of what is happening to him?

8. What improvements does Crusoe make to his cave?

9. What does Crusoe learn about his – or any person’s – ability to make basic things?

10. How does Crusoe first react when he realizes barley is growing outside his house?

11. What does he realize is the real reason the barley sprouted?

12. What do you think is the most important thing Crusoe does in this chapter. Explain your choice.

Study Questions – Chapter 6

1. What details does Defoe use to show how frightening the earthquake was?

2. Why does Crusoe consider moving his home from its current location?

3. Describe Crusoe’s illness. How does he react to it?

4. Who do you think is the figure in Crusoe’s dream? What is the figure trying to tell Crusoe?

5. What effect do the dream-figure’s words seem to have on Crusoe?

6. Why does the Bible verse Crusoe first reads seem to have a particularly important message for him?

7. What might be the “past wickedness” to which Crusoe refers before he prays sincerely?

8. How does this experience mark a major turning point in Crusoe’s attitudes and goals?

Study Questions – Chapter 7

1. What does Crusoe decide to do with the grapes he finds?

2. How is the western side of the island different from the side where Crusoe lives?

3. What happens to the fruit that he tries to bring back from the western side?

4. Why does Crusoe decide not to move his home to the western side the island?

5. What compromise does he come up with that enables him to enjoy the western valley as well?

6. How does Crusoe use trees to improve the defense of both his houses?

7. How is Crusoe finally able to make a basket?

8. Choose one sentence from this chapter that tells how Crusoe is feeling at this point in his “captivity.” Explain your choice.

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Study Questions – Chapter 8

1. What is dangerous about the people who live on the savage coast?

2. Summarize how Crusoe says his attitude changed after two years on the island, especially concerning what makes him happy.

3. Based on his insights about happiness, what does Crusoe admit is strange about his primary goal?

4. Show how Crusoe finds ways to save his first crop of barley from being eaten before he harvests it?

5. Why is Crusoe determined to make pots?movie.jpg

6. How is he finally able to figure out how to make a pot that will serve his needs?

7. Why is the longboat from his original ship of no use to Crusoe?

8. What mistake does Crusoe make when he builds a canoe?

9. After four years on the island, what has Crusoe learned about wealth and money?

10.Explain how Crusoe’s clothes are well suited to his environment.

11.Once Crusoe finally gets the canoe in the water, where does he intend to go?

12.What happens that makes Crusoe think he will never get back on shore?

13.What has Crusoe learned from this experience?

14.What does Crusoe’s parrot know how to say?

15. Based on the parrot’s tone, what can you tell about Crusoe’s mood when he taught the bird to say these things?

Study Questions – Chapter 9

1. Why is Crusoe so proud of his “ugly” pipe?

2. Why is it important for Crusoe to figure out a way to raise goats?

3. How is Crusoe finally able to capture four goats?

4. What foods besides meat does Crusoe get from the goats?

5. Why does Crusoe refer to himself as “prince and lord”?
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6. Why is Crusoe afraid to try to bring his boat back to his side of the island?

7. How can you tell from his comments in this chapter that Crusoe is proud of his accomplishments? Quote him.

8. Compare and contrast Crusoe’s two “plantations.” Use a T-chart or complete sentences to show how they are alike or different.

Study Questions – Chapter 10

1. What is very strange about the first sign that someone else has been on the island?

2. When Crusoe compares himself to a rabbit, what can you tell about how he feels?

3. What does Crusoe consider ironic or surprising about his reaction to evidence that someone else has been on the island?

4. List three things Crusoe does to make himself feel better protected from outsiders.

5. What two physical reactions show how disgusted and sad Crusoe is about the cannibals?

6. Why does Crusoe decide he should not try to destroy the cannibals when they come back?

7. For what purpose does Crusoe decide to use the cave he finds?

8. What are the savages doing while Crusoe watches them from the hilltop?

9. What does Crusoe think about constantly for the 15 months after he saw the savages on the beach?

10. How can Crusoe tell there’s a ship in trouble near his island?

11. What does Crusoe hope to find more than anything else on the Spanish wreck?

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12. List the items Crusoe brings from the wreck to the cave. Given what you know about his values, what do you think would be most important to him? What would be least important? 29

Study Questions – Chapter 11

1. Summarize Crusoe’s dream. What about it makes him happy?

2. As a result of the dream, what does Crusoe decide he must do?

3. Why does Crusoe feel he must save the runaway?

4. What is the meaning of the runaway’s gestures and movements as he approaches Crusoe?

5. Why does Crusoe like the runaway’s first words even though he doesn’t understand them?

6. What happens to the second savage?

7. What does the runaway want to do before leaving the scene of the killings?

8. Why does Crusoe name the runaway Friday? What name does Crusoe tell Friday to call him?
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9. What does Friday want to do when they pass the place where the men are buried? How does Crusoe react?

10. Describe Friday’s sleeping arrangements. What do they reveal about how much Crusoe trusts Friday?

11. How does Friday’s presence change Crusoe’s attitude about the island?

12. What is Friday’s attitude towards Crusoe’s gun? Why does he feel this way?

13. What does Friday tell Crusoe that gives him hope he might be able to escape?

14. Why are there Europeans living with Friday’s tribe?

15. How does Friday react when he sees his country off in the distance? 30

16. Why does this reaction upset Crusoe?

17. How does Friday react when he thinks Crusoe is going to send him back to his country alone? 31

Study Questions – Chapter 12

1. Why is Friday afraid at the sight of the canoes?

2. What does Friday say before the fight that proves his loyalty to Crusoe?

3. What is different about the prisoner who is bound and next to be eaten?

4. Describe Friday’s role in the ambush of the cannibals.

5. What does Friday’s behavior reveal about his personality?

6. Why does Crusoe want to chase the cannibals by boat?

7. Who does the prisoner in the boat turn out to be?

8. What is the physical condition of the Spaniard? How do they try to help him?

9. Crusoe refers to the two men as his “new subjects.” What does this reveal about Crusoe’s attitudes?

10. Why do the savages never return for revenge?

11. What does the Spaniard tell Crusoe about his fellow Europeans’ situation with Friday’s tribe?

12. How does this information change Crusoe’s plans for the future?

13. Why does the Spaniard suggest that they wait six months to send for the other Spaniards? 32

Study Questions – Chapter 13

1. Why is Crusoe not completely happy at the sight of the English ship?

2. What does Friday think the Englishmen who come on shore are about to do?

3. What does Crusoe realize the three captive men have in common with his earlier situation?

4. Why does Crusoe know he has to be more careful preparing for this battle than he did with the cannibals?

5. Who do the three men think sent Crusoe to them? How does Crusoe reply?

6. Summarize why the men have come to the island.

7. What is the captain’s explanation for why Crusoe was originally saved?

8. Describe Crusoe’s plan to trick the men still on board the ship.

9. Why do the men think they are on an enchanted island?

10. Summarize how the captain retook the ship. What was Crusoe’s role?

11. When the captain returns successful, how does Crusoe interpret these events?

12. What does Crusoe decide should be the fate of the mutineers who survived and how does he ensure their survival?

13. What is significant about the date that Crusoe went on board the ship?

14. When Crusoe returns home, what does he learn about his family?

15. How does Crusoe become a wealthy man?

16. How do you think Crusoe felt when he revisited the island? How would you feel if you were in his shoes?



To Kill A Mockingbirdby Harper Lee


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Harper Lee's coming-of-age tale, To Kill a Mockingbird, is set in the Deep South, and is a searing portrayal of race and prejudice told through the eyes of a little girl. Filled with atmospheric evocations of life in the 1930s and a moral and caring sensibility, To Kill a Mockingbird is both a brilliant rendering of a specific time and place as well as a universal tale of how understanding can triumph over old and evil mindsets.Most of all, To Kill a Mockingbird is a modern-day morality tale of how prejudice must be met, fought and overcome--no matter where it is present or how difficult that task might seem.

Scout Finch lives with her father, a lawyer and widower by the name of Atticus, and her brother, a young man named Jem. The first part of the To Kill a Mockingbird tells of one summer. Jem and Scout play, make new friends, and first come to know of a shadowy figure by the name of Boo Radley, who lives in a neighboring house and yet is never seen. A number of bad rumors surround this man (he is rumored to be a runaway murderer, who steals children), but their fair-minded father warns them that they should try to see the world from the other people's perspectives.
To Kill a Mockingbird is enormously touching and powerful in its simple story. Because it is narrated by young Scout, we are able to grow up and come to an understanding about the world in the same way that she does, creating order from the chaos of her everyday life.
The novel has a courageous and powerful political message about the downtrodden lives of African-Americans in 1930s America, and the prejudice and fear they faced every day. We also see a memorable heroic figure in Atticus Finch, a man of conscience raised to the level of crusader or idol.
In his quiet strength, he believes in the innate goodness of human beings that pushes him to defend Tom Robinson despite the approbation of his peers and to implore his children to try and see the good in Boo Radley. He became the voice of moral conscious in the age that the book was written and represented the ideals and hopes of the liberal classes w
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Harper Lee
ho hoped to see the end of segregation and racism.

From The Kirkus Reviews, 1960:
"Beautifully written, evocative, tender, but with a passionate message that drives the novel's action, To Kill a Mockingbird is rightfully a much loved and much studied classic. A tale of childhood, but also a tale of how the world should be (and how we can change it), the book lives on in the heart’s of those who have read it well after the final page has been turned."
"A first novel, this is also a first person account of Scout's (Jean Louise) recall of the years that led to the ending of a mystery, the breaking of her brother Jem's elbow, the death of her father's enemy -- and the close of childhood years. A widower, Atticus raises his children with legal dispassion and paternal intelligence, and is ably abetted by Calpurnia, the colored cook, while the Alabama town of Maycomb, in the 1930's, remains aloof to their divergence from its tribal patterns. Scout and Jem, with their summer-time companion, Dill, find their paths free from interference -- but not from dangers; their curiosity about the imprisoned Boo, whose miserable past is incorporated in their play, results in a tentative friendliness; their fears of Atticus' lack of distinction is dissipated when he shoots a mad dog; his defense of a Negro accused of raping a white girl, Mayella Ewell, is followed with avid interest and turns the rabble whites against him. Scout is the means of averting an attack on Atticus but when he loses the case it is Boo who saves Jem and Scout by killing Mayella's father when he attempts to murder them. The shadows of a beginning for black-white understanding, the persistent fight that Scout carries on against school, Jem's emergence into adulthood, Calpurnia's quiet power, and all the incidents touching on the children's "growing outward" have an attractive starchiness that keeps this southern picture pert and provocative. There is much advance interest in this book; it has been selected by the Literary Guild and Reader's Digest; it should win many friends."

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"To Kill a Mockingbird" Journaling Guide

Use the following questions to structure your journaling of each chapter.

Read the questions for each chapter to set a purpose before reading.

Answer the questions after reading each chapter.


(There are 125 questions covering the thirty-one chapters in the book. Number your journal entries accordingly.)

Chapter 1

1. What do you learn in this chapter about Maycomb, Atticus Finch, and his family?

2. What do you learn about Dill's character?

3. What, briefly, has happened to Arthur “Boo” Radley?

4. Why does the Radley place fascinate Scout, Jem and Dill?
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5. What do you notice about the narrative voice and viewpoint in the novel?

Chapter 2

6. What do you think of Miss Caroline Fisher as a teacher?



Chapter 3

7. Who is Calpurnia?

8. What is Walter Cunningham like?
9. How does Atticus treat Walter, and what does this show about Atticus’s character? What does it show about Walter?

10. Contrast the difference in the way Jem and Scout treat Walter.

11. Atticus says that you never really understand a person “until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”

12. What do you learn in this chapter about the Ewells?

Chapter 4

13. What does Scout think of current fashions in education?

14. What characteristics of children are revealed through the Boo Radley game?

15. Why doesn’t Scout enjoy the games as much as the boys do?

16. What might be the cause of the laughter from inside the house?

Chapter 5

17. Describe Miss Maudie Atkinson. What do the children think of her?

18. What purpose do you think Miss Maudie’s character plays in the novel?

19. What does Miss Maudie tell Scout about Boo?

20. What reasons does Atticus give for the children not to play the Boo Radley game? Do you think he is right? Why?

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21. Why does Scout disapprove of Jem's and Dill's plan of looking in at one of the Radleys' windows?

22. What does Mr. Nathan Radley know about the intruders in his garden?

23. Why does Dill's explanation of Jem's state of dress land him in trouble?

Chapter 7

24. When Jem tells Scout about getting his trousers back, he tells her of something strange. What is this?

25. Can you find any evidence that Jem is beginning to more than Scout about Boo Radley?

26. Does Jem still fear the gifts in the tree? Give reasons for your answer.

27. When the children plan to send a letter to the person who leaves the gifts, they are prevented. How does this happen?

Chapter 8

28. Why does Scout quiz Atticus about his visit to the Radley house? How much does Atticus tell her?

29. Why does Atticus save Miss Maudie's oak rocking chair?

30. When Atticus asks Scout about the blanket around her shoulders, what does Jem realize?

31. Explain what Atticus means by telling Jem not to let his discovery “inspire ” him to “further glory”?

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32. How well does Atticus feel he should defend Tom Robinson? What are his reasons?

33. Scout and Jem have “mixed feelings” about Christmas? What are these feelings and why?


34. Uncle Jack Finch tells Scout that she is growing out of her pants. What does this mean and why might he say it?

35. When Francis talks to Scout he reveals an unpleasant feature of Aunt Alexandra. What is this?

36. Does Scout learn anything from overhearing Atticus's conversation with Uncle Jack? What might this be?

37. Read the final sentence of this chapter. Explain in your own words what it means and why it might be important in the story.

Chapter 10

38. Scout says that “Atticus was feeble”. Do you think that this is her view as she tells the story or her view when she was younger?

39. In this chapter Atticus tells his children that “it's a sin to kill a mockingbird”. What reason does he give for saying this?

40. Near the end of this chapter Atticus cuts off Heck Tate as he is speaking to Jem. What might Heck have been about to say, and why would Atticus want to stop him from saying it?

41. Jem and Scout have different views about telling people at school how well Atticus can shoot. Explain this difference.

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Chapter 11

42. How does Atticus advise Jem to react to Mrs. Dubose's taunts?
43. What does Mrs. Dubose say about the children's mother? How does Jem feel about this?

44. What request does Mrs. Dubose make of Jem? Is this a fair punishment for his “crime”?

45. Explain in your own words what Atticus thinks of insults like “nigger-lover.”

46. Why, in Atticus's view, was Mrs. Dubose “a great lady”?

47. Atticus says that Mrs. Dubose is a model of real courage rather than “a man with a gun in his hand.” What was her courageous act?

48. Chapters ten and eleven are the last two chapters in the first part of the book. Explain why you think Harper Lee chooses to end the first part here.

Chapter 12

49. What new things does Scout learn from Jem's and Scout's visit to First Purchase church about how the black people live?

50. What does Scout learn from Calpurnia's account of Zeebo's education?

51. Explain why Calpurnia speaks differently in the Finch household, and among her neighbors at church.

52. How are Jem and Scout accepted at First Purchase?

Chapter 13

53. Why does Aunt Alexandra come to stay with Atticus and his family? What is she like?

54. Read the first two things Alexandra says when she comes to the Finch house. Are these typical of her or not?

55. What are Aunt Alexandra's ideas about breeding and family?

Chapter 14

56. Why does Alexandra think Atticus should dismiss Calpurnia?

57. Why is Scout pleased when Jem fights her back?

58. What do we learn from Dill's account of his running away?

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Chapter 15

59. What is the “nightmare” that now descends upon the children?

60. Why did Heck Tate and the other men come to see Atticus?

61. What was (and is) the Ku Klux Klan? What do you think of Atticus's comment about it?

62. How does Jem react when Atticus tells him to go home, and why?

63. What persuades the lynching-party to give up their attempt on Tom's life?

64. Comment on the way Scout affects events without realizing it at the time.

Chapter 16

65. What does the atmosphere in Macomb at the beginning of the trial show about human nature?

66. What sort of person is Dolphus Raymond?

67. How does Reverend Sykes help the children see and hear the trial?

68. Why is Scout confused after overhearing remarks about her father’s defense of Tom Robinson?

69. Comment on Judge Taylor's attitude to his job. Does he take the trial seriously or not?

Chapter 17

70. What are the main points in Heck Tate's evidence?

71. What does Atticus show in his cross-examination of Sheriff Tate?

72. What do we learn indirectly of the home life of the Ewell family in this chapter?

73. What do you learn from Bob Ewell's evidence?

74. Why does Atticus ask Bob Ewell to write out his name? What does the jury see when he does this?

Chapter 18

75. Is Mayella like her father or different from him? In what ways?

76. What might be the reason for Mayella's crying in the court?

77. How does Mayella react to Atticus's politeness? Is she used to people being polite?

78. How well does Mr. Gilmer prove Tom's guilt in the eyes of the reader (you) and in the eyes of the jury?

Chapter 19

79. What made Tom visit the Ewell's house in the first place?

80. Why does Scout think that Mayella Ewell was “the loneliest person in the world”?

81. Describe Mayella’s relationship with her father.

82. How does Mr. Gilmer’s treatment of Tom contrast with Atticus’s treatment of Mayella in the previous chapter?

83. What social mistake does Tom make in his testimony?

84. Why does Dill become sick?

Chapter 20

85. Scout says that “Mr. Dolphus Raymond was an evil man.” Is she right?

86. In most states of the USA people who drink alcohol in public places are required to hide their bottle in a paper bag. Why does Dolphus Raymond hide Coca-Cola in a bag?

87. What, according to Atticus, is the thing that Mayella has done wrong?

88. Explain, in your own words, Atticus's views on people's being equal.

Chapter 21

89. What does Jem expect the verdict to be? Does Atticus think the same? Why?

90. What is unusual about how long it takes the jury to reach a verdict? Is the verdict predictable or not?

91. What does Reverend Sykes instruction to Scout to stand up show about his people’s attitude toward Atticus?

Chapter 22

92. Although Atticus did not want his children in court, he defends Jem's right to know what has happened. Explain, in your own words, Atticus's reasons for this. (Look at the speech beginning, “This is their home, sister.”

93. Miss Maudie tells Jem that “things are never as bad as they seem.” What reasons does she give for this view?

Chapter 23

94. What explanation does Atticus give for Bob Ewell’s personal attack and threat?

95. What is “circumstantial evidence”? What has it got to do with Tom's conviction?

96. What reason does Atticus give about why the jury took so long to convict Tom?

97. Why does Aunt Alexandra accept that the Cunninghams may be good but are not “our kind of folks?

98. At the end of this chapter, Jem forms a new theory about why Boo Radley has never left his house in years. What is this? How likely is it to be true, in your opinion?

Chapter 24

99. Do you think the missionary ladies are sincere in worrying about the “Mrunas” (a tribe in Africa)? Give reasons for your answer.

100. What is your opinion of the ladies of Maycomb? Explain.

101. Explain briefly how Tom was killed. What is Atticus's explanation for Tom's attempted escape?

102. How, in this chapter, do we see Aunt Alexandra in a new light? How does Miss Maudie support her?

103. What shows that Scout has new respect for Aunt Alexandra?

Chapter 25

104. How does Maycomb react to the news of Tom's death?

105. Comment on the idea that Tom's death was “typical.”

106. Explain the contrast Scout draws between the court where Tom was tried and “the secret courts of men's hearts.”

107. Why did Jem not want Scout to tell Atticus about Bob Ewell's at the end of the chapter? Was this a wise thing to ask her to do?

Chapter 26

108. In her lesson on Hitler, Miss Gates says that “we (American people) don't believe in persecuting anyone”. What seems odd to the reader about this claim?

109. Why is Scout puzzled by Miss Gates' disapproval of Hitler?

110. Why does Scout's question upset Jem? Is there a simple answer, or any answer, to the question (“How can you hate Hitler an’ then turn around an be ugly about folks right at home?”

Chapter 27

111. What three things does Bob Ewell do that alarm Aunt Alexandra?

112. Why, according to Atticus, does Bob Ewell bear a grudge?

Chapter 28

113. How do the opening pages of this chapter reminds the reader of earlier events in the novel?

114. Scout decides to keep her costume on while walking home. How does this affect her understanding of what happens on the way?

115. Why had Atticus not brought a chair for the man in the corner? Who might this stranger be?

Chapter 29

116. What causes the “shiny clean line” on the otherwise “dull wire” of Scout's costume?

117. What explanation does Atticus give for Bob Ewell's attack?

118. What does Heck Tate give as the reason for the attack?

119. Why should the reader not be surprised about the identity of the children’s rescuer?

Chapter 30

120. Who does Atticus think caused Bob Ewell's death?

121. Why does Heck Tate insist that Bob Ewell's death was self-inflicted?

122. Is Heck Tate right to spare Boo then publicity of an inquest? Give reasons for your answer.


123. How do the events of the final chapters explain the first sentence in the whole novel?

124. How does Scout make sense of an earlier remark of Atticus's as she stands on the Radley porch?

125. How much of a surprise is it to find what Boo Radley is really like? Has the story before this point prepared the reader for this discovery?

To Kill a Mockingbird
Reading Schedule

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Chapters Assigned
Reading Dates


Chapters 1-4
September 10-14
Chapters 5-8
September 17-21
Chapters 9-12
September 24-28
Chapters 13-16
October 1-5
Chapters 17-20
October 8-12
Chapters 21-24
October 15-19
Chapters 25-28
October 22-26
Chapters 29-31
October 29-November
~ This is a size-able amount of reading... keep to the schedule!
~ Journaling Guide is just that, a guide - you'll be graded on the content and quality of your writing.

Some video content screened in the classroom...
"The Bear That Wasn't" ... A memorable "bear-parable" about Identity and Stereotyping
http://www.facinghistory.org/hhb/bear-wasnt

"The Ballad Of Emmitt Till," by Bob Dylan dylan1962.jpgIn May 1962 the legendary folksinger Bob Dylan came by the WBAI studios in New York to perform his rarely heard tribute to Emmett Till. This is one of the earliest known live recordings of Bob Dylan. It was recorded within days of his 21st birthday and never appeared on an official Bob Dylan record.http://www.democracynow.org/2005/8/26/bob_dylan_performing_the_ballad_of
"The Murder Of Emmitt Till," from the brilliant documentary series "Eyes On The Prize," a chronicle of the American Civil Rights Movement from writer Steve Fayer and director Heemmit.till.front.jpgnry Hampton.http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=536339677935896178


Medgar Evers - Part 1, Civil Rights Heroes, Martin Kent Documentary
Excerpt from Civil Rights Heroes, a documentary from Emmy Award-winning filmmaker Martin Kent, which originally aired on Discovery Networks. Before Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. took over, as the voice, conscience and vehicle of the Civil Rights Movement, there was Medgar Evers, whose civil rights activism in Mississippi began with the death of Emmett Till in 1955. Evers was assassinated by a white supremacist in 1963.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_HBdrJkmDE&feature=relatedimages.medgar.evans.jpg





"Only A Pawn In Their Game" by Bob DylanAt the Newport Festival Dylan gave a forceful presentation of this song, allowing the audience to focus on his message (first link). Dylan also performed “Only A Pawn” at the March on Washington in August 1963 (second link). At this historic civil rights gathering, Dylan,
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"A Pawn in Their Game," Newport, 1963
accompanied only by his guitar, performed the song from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. The huge rally of civil rights marchers that day would later hear Dr. Martin Luther King give his famous “I Have A Dream Speech,” also from the Lincoln Memorial.


http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTc0MTYzNDIw.ht
http://videosift.com/video/Bob-Dylan-Live-at-the-1963-Newport-Folk-Festival
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March on Washington, 1963

The Folk Spirit of the Civil Rights Movement
Dylan & Joan Baez, March On Washington, "When The Ship Comes In"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLwHnNybADo&NR=1&feature=endscreen

Below: Bob Dylan & Joan Baez, Washington; Below, right: July 2, 1963: Bob Dylan at civil rights, voter registration gathering in Greenwood, Mississippi singing ‘Only a Pawn in Their Game,’ a song about the murder of activist Medgar Evers. Pete Seeger, who had been there for a few days already, also performed at the Greenwood gathering.
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March on Washington, 1963
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Greenwood, Mississippi, 2 July 1963

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLwHnNybADo&NR=1&feature=endscreen
http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTY4NzQxODky.html
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Joan Baez, March on Washington, August '63
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Pete Seeger, Greenwood, Mississippi, 2 July 63

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Peter, Paul, Mary; Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Pete Seeger & Freedom Singers, "We Shall Overcome" Newport Folk Festival, 1963

"The Death of Emmett Till" by Bob Dylan, 1962


'Twas down in Mississippi
Not so long ago
When a young boy from Chicago Town
Walk in a southern door
This boy's fateful tragedy
We should all remember well
The color of his skin was black
And his name was Emmett Till

Some men they dragged him to a barn
And there they beat him up
They said they had a reason
But I disremember what
They tortured him and did some things
Too evil to repeat
There was screamin' sounds inside the barn
There was laughin' sound out on the street

They dragged his body to a gulch
Amidst a bloodred rain
And they through him in the waters wide
To sease his screaming pain
The reason that they killed him there
And I'm sure it ain't no lie
He was a blackskin boy
So he was born to die

And so to stop these United States
Of yelling for a trial
Two brothers they confessed that they
Killed poor Emmett Till
But on the jury there were men
Who helped the brother commit this awful crime
And so this trial was a mockery
But nobody seemed to mind

I saw the morning paper
But I could not bear
To see the brothers smiling
On that courthouse stairs
For the jury found them innocent
And the brothers they went free
Whilt Emmett's body floats the foam
Of a Jim Crow southern sea

If you can't speak out against this kind of thing
A crime that's so unjust
Your eyes are filled with deadman's dirt
Your mind is filled with dust
Your arms and legs, they must be in shackles and chains
And your blood it must cease to flow
For you'd let this human race
Sick so God-awful low

This song is just a reminder
To tell my fellow man
That this kind of thing still lives today
In that ghost-robed Klu Klux Klan
But if we all then think alike
If we give all we can give
We'd make this Great land of ours
An even greater place to live

http://www.songmeanings.net/songs/view/3530822107858569229/#XPLj1rpi57OJK8kO.99


“Only a Pawn in Their Game” (Death of Medgar Evers)
Bob Dylan, 1963

A bullet from the back of a bush
took Medgar Evers’ blood.
A finger fired the trigger to his name.
A handle hid out in the dark
A hand set the spark
Two eyes took the aim
Behind a man’s brain
But he can’t be blamed
He’s only a pawn in their game.

A South politician preaches
to the poor white man,
“You got more than the blacks,
don’t complain.
You’re better than them, you been born
with white skin,” they explain.
And the Negro’s name
Is used it is plain
For the politician’s gain
As he rises to fame
And the poor white remains
On the caboose of the train
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game.

The deputy sheriffs, the soldiers, the
governors get paid,
And the marshals and cops get the same,
But the poor white man’s used in the
hands of them all like a tool.
He’s taught in his school
From the start by the rule
That the laws are with him
To protect his white skin
To keep up his hate
So he never thinks straight
‘Bout the shape that he’s in
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game.

From the poverty shacks, he looks
from the cracks to the tracks,
And the hoof beats pound in his brain.
And he’s taught how to walk in a pack
Shoot in the back
With his fist in a clinch
To hang and to lynch
To hide ‘neath the hood
To kill with no pain
Like a dog on a chain
He ain’t got no name
But it ain’t him to blame
He’s only a pawn in their game.

Today, Medgar Evers was buried from
the bullet he caught.
They lowered him down as a king.
But when the shadowy sun sets on the one
That fired the gun
He’ll see by his grave
On the stone that remains
Carved next to his name
His epitaph plain:
Only a pawn in their game.

http://www.pophistorydig.com/?tag=bob-dylan-joan-baez

To-Kill-a-Mockingbird-First-Edition-Cover.jpg
First Edition Cover





To-Kill-A-Mocking-Bird-First-Edition-Copyright-Page1-1024x477.jpg
Copyright page "True" First Edition



The first edition cover of "To Kill A Mockingbird" and the first edition copyright page.








- bilbobaggins11 bilbobaggins11 Sep 16, 2012- bilbobaggins11 bilbobaggins11 Sep 16, 2012- bilbobaggins11 bilbobaggins11 Sep 16, 2012- bilbobaggins11 bilbobaggins11 Sep 16, 2012

ANNE FRANK
THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL

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Perhaps the most famous personal account of the Holocaust, The Diary of Anne Frank was written in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 1942 and 1944. The Franks were a Jewish family originally from Germany, where Anne was born in 1929. Anne’s father, Otto, had come from a wealthy background, but his family’s fortune was lost after World War I.

Anne was thrilled to receive a diary on her thirteenth birthday expressed hope that it would become her one trusted confidant. She immediately began filling her diary with details of her life, including descriptions of her friends, boys she liked, and events at school. Less than one month after she began documenting her relatively carefree childhood, Anne and her family were suddenly forced into hiding.

Margot, Anne’s sixteen-year-old sister, had been “called up” by the Gestapo, Germany’s brutal secret-police force. It was common knowledge among Jews that being called up meant eventually being sent to one of the notorious concentration camps. The Franks were relatively prepared, since they had been sending furniture and provisions to a secret annex in Otto’s office building in anticipation of the Gestapo. The Franks and another family, the van Daans, had arranged to share the annex while some of Otto’s non-Jewish colleagues agreed to look after the families. The Franks later invited one more person, Mr. Dussel, to share their annex.

While they were in hiding, the Franks used a radio to keep up with news from the war, and Anne frequently wrote in her diary about events that caught her attention. These bits—speeches by Wins


ton Churchill; the advances by the British—provide a vivid historical context for Anne’s personal thoughts and feelings.

Anne Frank, April, 1941
Anne Frank, April, 1941

The Gestapo finally arrested Anne and her family on August 4, 1944. Two secretaries who worked in the building found the books containing Anne’s diary entries strewed over the floor of the annex. The secretaries handed over the diaries to Miep Gies, an assistant in Otto’s office. Miep held the diary, unread, in a desk drawer. When the war ended in 1945, Miep delivered the diary to Otto Frank, who had survived the horrors of the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anne and Margot died of typhus at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in February or March of 1945. Their mother died of hunger and exhaustion in Auschwitz in January 1945. The van Daans and Mr. Dussel also perished in the camps.



Otto Frank knew of his daughter’s wish to become a published writer. Anne originally kept the diary only as a private memoir, but in 1944 she changed her mind after hearing a broadcast by Gerrit Boklestein, a member of the Dutch government in exile. Boklestein declared his hope to publish Dutch people’s accounts of the war, which inspired Anne to think about the possibility of writing for posterity. In addition to her diary, Anne wrote several fables and short stories with an eye toward publishing them someday. She also had thoughts of becoming a journalist.

Mr. Frank reviewed the diary and selected passages, keeping in mind constraints on length and appropriateness for a young-adult audience. He also left out certain passages that he considered unflattering to his late wife and the other residents of the annex. When Mr. Frank died in 1980, the Anne Frank Foundation in Basel, Switzerland, inherited the copyright to the diary. A new, complete edition, which restored the passages Mr. Frank left out of the original edition, was published in 1991.


Anne Frank and Her Diary
Anne Frank and Her Diary

Anne Frank was a young Jewish girl who lived and died during the Holocaust. The Frank family hid from the Nazis for two long years in a Secret Annex at the back of a warehouse. During that time, Anne kept a diary in which she not only wrote about the horrors of war but the everyday problems of being a teenager.

Fifty years after Anne's father published The Diary of Anne Frank, it has become the world's best-known memoir of the Holocaust.

If you want to know more about Anne Frank or the Holocaust, be sure to check out our Holocaust and World War II resources.


Anne Frank Time Line
June 12, 1929:
Anneliese Marie, or Anne, is born in Frankfurt, Germany.

Summer 1933:
Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany. The first anti-Jewish laws are established.The Franks decide that the family must move to the Netherlands.

May 10, 1940:
The German army invades the Netherlands.

June 12, 1942:
Anne receives a diary for her 13th birthday.

July 5, 1942:
Anne's older sister, Margot, receives a call-up notice to report for deportation to a forced-labor camp. The family goes into hiding the next day.

July 13, 1942:
The van Pels, another Jewish family originally from Germany, join the Franks in hiding.

November 16, 1942:
Fritz Pfeffer, the eighth and final resident of the Secret Annex, joins the Frank and van Pels families.

August 4, 1944:
The residents of the Secret Annex are betrayed and arrested. They are taken to a police station in Amsterdam and eventually to Westerbork transit camp.

September 3, 1944:
The eight prisoners are transported in a sealed cattle car to Auschwitz, on the last transport ever to leave Westerbork. At Auschwitz, the men are separated from the women.

October 1944:
Anne, Margot, and Mrs. van Pels are transported to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Edith Frank remains in the women's subcamp at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

January 6, 1945:
Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz-Birkenau.

January 27, 1945:
Otto Frank is liberated from Auschwitz by the Russian army. He is taken first to Odessa and then to France before he is allowed to make his way back to Amsterdam.

March 1945:
Anne and Margot Frank die at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp within days of each other.

June 3, 1945:
Otto Frank arrives in Amsterdam, where he is reunited with Miep and Jan Gies. He knows his wife has died, but he does not know that his daughters have died too. He still has hope.

October 24, 1945:
Otto Frank receives a letter informing him that his daughters died at Bergen-Belsen. Miep gives Anne's diary to Otto. She found and hid the diary after the Franks' arrest and had been hoping to return it to Anne.

Summer 1947:
The first 1,500 copies of Anne's diary are published in Amsterdam.

The Anne Frank time line is excerpted from The Reader's Companion to The Diary of a Young Girl. Copyright 1995 Doubleday. All rights reserved. Published by the Anne Frank Center USA and Bantam Doubleday Dell. Used by permission of the Anne Frank Center USA.

Set / Chapter Questions


Set One: June 14, 1942 – June 30, 1942 [p. 2-9]


1. How does Anne get her Diary?

2. Why can’t Anne participate in gym class?

3. Name three of Anne’s friends.

4. Who does Anne feel she can confide in?

5. Where and when was Anne Frank born?

6. Why did the Franks move to Holland?

7. Where is the rest of Anne’s family?

8. What restrictions have the Nazis imposed on Jews in Holland?

9. What does Anne call her diary?


Set Two July 3, 1942 – July 10, 1942 [p. 11-20]


1. Who has Anne been spending more and more time with?

2. Why does Anne’s father become furious?

3. Why have the Franks been asking friends to store their belongings?

4. What triggers the Franks’ sudden departure?

5. Describe their departure.

6. Where are the Franks hiding?

7. Who knows about the Franks’ hiding place?


Set Three July 11, 1942 – October 9, 1942 [p. 20-40]


1. How does the chiming clock make Anne feel?

2. How does Anne describe life in the annex? What does she compare it to?

3. Why does Anne often clash with her mother and sister?

4. Who arrives on July 13, 1942?

5. How is the entrance to the annex concealed?

6. What doesn’t Anne like about Mrs. van Daan?

7. What precautions must the Franks and van Daans take to remain undiscovered in the annex?


Set Four October 16, 1942 – November 20, 1942 [p. 40-55]


1. How does Anne stay busy?

2. What event scares the people in the annex?

3. How does Anne feel about a new addition to the annex?

4. What atrocities does Mr. Dussel recount to Anne?


Set Five November 28, 1942 – June 13, 1943 [p. 55-83]


1. How does Anne now feel about Mr. Dussel?

2. How do they celebrate Hanukkah?

3. What about Mrs. van Daan bothers Anne?

4. Why is Anne annoyed with Mr. Dussel?

5. What is happening to Jews outside the annex?

6. What disturbing radio announcement do they hear?

7. What does Mr. Frank give Anne for her birthday?


Set Six June 15, 1943 – November 11, 1943 [p. 83-115]


1. What is Anne’s favourite day of the week? Why?

2. What does Anne plan to do when she leaves the annex?

3. What good news for they hear on the radio?

4. What unflattering things does Anne share about her fellow residents in the annex?

5. Describe three examples of people losing their temper.

6. According to Anne, how are the residents like a “patch of blue sky”?

7. What happens to Anne’s pen? Why should this be significant to the reader?


Set Seven November 17, 1943 – January 28, 1944 [p. 117-146]


1. Why is Bep forced to stay away from the annex?

2. What does Anne dream of?

3 .What does Anne do to celebrate St. Nicholas Day?

4. Why is Anne so jealous of Mrs. Kleiman’s children?

5. What surprises Anne when she reads through her diary?

6. Who does Anne begin to confide in?


Set Eight February 3, 1944 – March 12, 1944 [p. 146-172]


1. What does Anne think about the Dutch people helping Jews hide?

2. What changes in Anne and Peter’s relationship?

3. How has Peter’s experience made him feel about being Jewish?

4. How does Anne feel about Peter?

5. How does Anne describe her life before the annex?


Set Nine March 14, 1944 – April 11, 1944 [p. 172-208]


1. What happens to the food supply?

2. Why is Margot jealous of Anne?

3. Describe the frightening break-in.


Set Ten April 14, 1944 – August 1, 1944 [p. 208-268]


1. Describe the mood in the annex after the break-in.

2. What important event happens for Anne on April 15th

3. What is Mr. Frank’s reaction to Anne and Peter’s relationship?

4. What does Anne think money should be used for instead of waging war?

5. How does Anne’s father respond to her letter?

6. What important event occurs on June 6th

7. What insights about herself does Anne describe on August 1, 1944?


Afterword [p. 269-283]


1. What happened to the residents of the annex on August 4th, 1944?

2. How did Anne’s diary survive? Why was it published?

3. What happened to each of the people who hid in the annex?


The Journey of A Young Girl and Her Diary

1925

After getting married, Otto and Edith Frank settle in Frankfurt. They soon have children: Margot in 1926, and Anne in 1929. Those first few years are happy ones, but the economic crisis empowers Hitler’s NSDAP. In 1933, Hitler takes over as leader of the German government. Otto and Edith Frank are deeply worried and look for a means of escape

Main menu Life in Germany
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Leden van de SA marcheren door een Duitse stad.
Leden van de SA marcheren door een Duitse stad.


1925

After getting married, Otto and Edith Frank settle in Frankfurt. They soon have children: Margot in 1926, and Anne in 1929. Those first few years are happy ones, but the economic crisis empowers Hitler’s NSDAP. In 1933, Hitler takes over as leader of the German government. Otto and Edith Frank are deeply worried and look for a means of escape

Main menu Life in Germany

1933

Otto Frank manages to set up a business in Amsterdam. Edith, Margot and Anne follow him to the Netherlands. They find a place to live on the Merwedeplein. The Franks feel safe and free again. The children go to school, Otto works hard on his business and Edith takes care of the household. But then World War 2 breaks out. On 10 May 1940, Germany invades the Netherlands. The Frank family is in danger once more.

Main menu Emigrating to the Netherlands
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Opekta trein
Opekta trein

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1940

With the Netherlands now occupied, life changes for the Frank family. Restrictions keep mounting, both for individuals and for Otto's business. When Margot is called up to be sent to a German labour camp, Otto and Edith decide the dangers have become too great. They take their family into hiding.

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1942

There are four other Jews in the Secret Annex besides the Frank family: Hermann and Auguste van Pels with their son Peter, and Fritz Pfeffer. Four of Otto’s employees help them. Everyone lives in constant fear of discovery. And it’s certainly not easy for eight people to live in such close quarters.

Main menu The hiding place
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Anne doesn’t just keep a diary during her time in the Secret Annex. She also writes short stories and collects her favourite sentences by other writers in a notebook. Anne hopes for her diary to be published as a novel after the war. That’s why she starts rewriting it. But Anne never manages to finish it. She's discovered and arrested before she completes her work.

Main menu Reactions to the diary
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Dagboek
Dagboek

1944

On 4 August 1944, everyone in the Secret Annex is arrested. Someone has betrayed them. They are deported first to the Westerbork transit camp, and then on to Auschwitz. Otto Frank is the only person from the Secret Annex to survive the camps. The others all die. Hermann van Pels is murdered in the gas chambers, and Auguste is thrown in front of a train during a transport. The others die of disease and exhaustion. The identity of their betrayer has never been established.

Main menu The Arrest
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1945

After Auschwitz is liberated, Otto returns to Amsterdam. On his way back, he hears of Edith’s death. Back in Amsterdam, he goes to see Miep and Jan Gies. He hopes Anne and Margot might still be alive, but then discovers that they too did not survive the war. Miep gives him Anne’s diaries. Anne had wanted her diary to be published after the war, and her wish would eventually come true.

Main menu Otto Frank returns
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1947

After the war, Otto Frank devotes himself to working for human rights and respect. He answers thousands of letters from people who have read his daughter’s diary. The diary is translated, and adapted to both film and theatre. People all over the world get to know Anne Frank’s story, and are deeply touched.

Main menu The diary is published
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Toneelstuk
Toneelstuk


Topical Questions: Anne Frank

General questions for "Anne Frank"
1. When was Anne Frank born?_


2. What were her parents and sister's names?


3. What war did her father serve in and for what country?


4. Why is this ironic?


5. What did the Dutch Opekta Company sell?_


6. When did Germany invade the Netherlands?


7. Where was the Secret Annex located?


8. Who else went into hiding with the Franks?_


9. When did they go into hiding?_


10.Why did they go into hiding?


11. How long did they live in the Secret Annex?


12. When were they captured?_


13. Who were the four helpers?


14. When did they go to Auschwitz?


15. Who went to Bergen-Belsen and when?


16. Of all the Secret Annex members who survived the Holocaust ?__


Questions for "The Diary"


1. When did Anne receive her diary and what was the occasion?_


2. What did she name her diary?_


3. Why did this diary become so important?_


4. Did Anne intend to have the diary published and why?___


Questions for "Publication of Diary"


1. Who published her diary?


2. Why did he publish it?_


3. How many copies have been sold?_


4. How many languages has it been translated in?__


Questions for "Authenticity of Diary"


1. What does authenticity mean?_


2. Who questioned the authenticity of the diary?


3. Why did they question it?___

Questions for "Selected Entries"


1. Which entry did you feel is the most moving and powerful?_


2. Why?



Hamlet.broadside.jpg


HAMLET PRINCE OFDENMARK
by William Shakespeare






Chapter Questions
Act I Journal Questions

  1. 1. Why do you think the Ghost of Hamlet’s father appears, but does not speak, to the officers on sentinel duty?
  2. 2. What do Ghostly apparitions usually portend, according to these witnesses?
  3. 3. What is the main idea of the content of the dispatches Claudius has sent with Voltemand and Cornelius to the King of Norway?
  4. 4. In his soliloquy, what are Hamlet’s reasons for objecting to his mother’s remarriage?
  5. 5. What advice does Laertes give to Ophelia as he says farewell to her prior to his departure for Paris?
  6. 6. What is the thrust of the
    advice Polonius gives Laertes as his son prepares to leave?
  7. 7. What does Polonius instruct Ophelia to do regarding Hamlet?
  8. 8. What does the apparition tell Hamlet?
  9. 9. What two-part oath does Hamlet extract from his companions following the encounter with the Ghost?

Act II Journal Questions
  1. 10. What task does Polonius assign Reynaldo in Paris?
  2. 11. Why is Ophelia so upset when she speaks with her father?
  3. 12. In what respect does Polonius change his mind about Hamlet and the prince’s relationship to Ophelia?
  4. 13. What task does Claudius assign to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern?
  5. 14. What news do Voltemand and Cornelius bring back from Norway?
  6. 15. What do Claudius and Gertrude conclude after hearing Polonius read the letter from Hamlet to Ophelia?
  7. 16. What does Polonius mean in an aside, as he speaks with Hamletglobe.jpg, “Though this be madness, yet there is method in’t”?
  8. 17. Why have Hamlet’s two friends arranged for the theatrical troupe to perform at the palace?

Act III Journal Questions
  1. 18. What do Rosencrantz and Guildenstern report to Claudius regarding their conversation with Hamlet?
  2. 19. What favor does Hamlet ask of Horatio
  3. 20. What is the plot of the Dumb Show the Players present?
  4. 21. What is the significance of the play’s title, “The Mousetrap”?
  5. 22. What does Hamlet mean, as he prepares to visit his mother, when he says, “O heart, lose not thy nature”?
  6. 23. What is ironic about Hamlet’s failure to kill Claudius while the King is kneeling in prayer?
  7. 24. What is Hamlet’s reaction when he he has killed Polonius rather than Claudius, whom he had presumed to be the one hiding behind the curtain?
Act IV Journal Questions
  1. 25. What is Claudius’ response when Gertrude tells him that Hamlet has murdered Polonius?
  2. 26. What does Claudius direct Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to do?
  3. 27.Whydoes Hamlet call Claudius “dear Mother”?
  4. 28. How does Hamlet contrast himself (all men) to beasts?
  5. 29. How does Claudius plan to poison the drink, in addition to poisoning the rapier tip which Laertes will wield?
  6. 30. How does Claudius propose to satisfy Laertes’ suspicions?
  7. 31. Why does Claudius plan to poison the drink, in addition to poisoning the rapier tip which Laertes will wield?
  8. 32. How does Ophelia drown?

Act V Journal Questions
  1. 33 Why is there debate surrounding the nature of Ophelia’s funeral?
  2. 34 What joking insult to the English does Shakespeare put into the gravedigger’s dialogue, regarding Hamlet’s madness?
  3. 35 What cause does Laertes ascribe to Ophelia’s madness, which led to her death?
  4. 36 What prompts Hamlet’s outburst at Ophelia’s graveside?
  5. 37 What order did Claudius’ letter, carried by Guildenstern and Rosencrantz, convey to the English regarding Hamlet’s fate?

  6. 38 In his apology to Laertes, what does Hamlet mean when he says, “I have shot my arrow o’er the house and hurt my brother”?
  7. 39 Why does Hamlet forbid Horatio to drink the rest of the poisoned cup?
  8. 40 Who will ascend to power as the new Kingtitle.jpg of Denmark?