* A Wrinkle In Time *
by Madeleine L'Engle

Meg Murray, her little brother Charles Wallace, and their mother are having a midnight snack on a dark and stormy night when an unearthly stranger appears at their door. She claims to have been blown off course, and goes on to tell them that there is such a thing as a "tesseract," which, if you didn't know, is a wrinkle in time.

Meg's father had been experimenting with time-travel when he suddenly disappeared. Will Meg, Charles Wallace, and their friend Calvin outwit the forces of evil as they search through space for their father?

Winner of the Newbery Medal in 1963, L'Engle's work of fantasy and science fiction combined with some Christian theology has now been read by several generations of young enthusiasts. The author went on to write three others, forming a quartet based on the Murry family, and including themes like the power of love and the need to make responsible moral choices.

In this story, Meg Murry, her extraordinary little brother Charles Wallace, and schoolmate Calvin O'Keefe make the acquaintance of eccentric Mrs. Whatsit and friends (who turn out to be extraterrestrial beings). Together they journey through a wrinkle in time, a tesseract, to rescue the Murrys' missing father from an evil presence (likened by some interpreters to a black hole), and a sinister brain called IT.
Although this is fantasy, the characters are portrayed realistically and sympathetically; it is Meg's ability to love that enables them to return safely to Earth and make secure the right to individuality. L'Engle herself claims that she does not know how she came to write the story; "I had no choice," she says, "It was only after it was written that I realized what some of it meant." A plus with this new edition is an essay by Lisa Sonne that explores scientific concepts related to the story—multiple dimensions, dark energy, and string theory. Each of these concepts were conceived since the book's 1962 publication but are amazingly applicable to A Wrinkle in Time, and help to ensure that this imaginative book will be read for a long time into the future.2005 (orig. 1962), Laurel Leaf/Random House — Barbara L. Talcroft
"...listeners will still be entranced by this imagination-stretching modern classic." -- Publishers Weekly

“A Wrinkle in Time is one of my favorite books of all time. I’ve read it so often, I know it by heart. Meg Murry was my hero growing up. I wanted glasses and braces and my parents to stick me in an attic bedroom. And I so wanted to save Charles Wallace from IT.”Meg Cabot

“A book that every young person should read, a book that provides a road map for seeking knowledge and compassion even at the worst of times, a book to make the world a better place.”Cory Doctorow

"An exhilarating experience."
-- Kirkus Reviews

"This imaginative book will be read for a long time into the future."
-- Children's Literature

close-up_madeleine_lengle.jpgAbout the Author

Madeleine L'Engle Camp was born in New York City and educated in boarding schools in Switzerland and across the United States. A shy, withdrawn child with few friends, she retreated into writing at an early age. She attended Smith College, graduating summa cum laude in 1941. After college, she worked in the New York theatre, where she met her future husband, Hugh Franklin. (Later she would say that they "met in The Cherry Orchard and married during The Joyous Season.") Her first book, The Small Rain (1945), was completed while she was still working as an actress.

After the birth of their first child, Madeleine and her husband moved to rural Connecticut to run a small general store; but in 1959, they returned to New York City with their three children so Hugh Franklin could resume his acting career (For many years, he played Dr. Charles Tyler on the popular television soap opera All My Children.) Although Madeleine wrote steadily during this period, few of her books were published. Then, in 1960, she released her first children's story, Meet the Austins. An affectionate portrait of a close-knit family, the book was named an ALA Notable Children's Book of the year and spawned several bestselling sequels.

Completed in 1960, L'Engle's science fiction YA classic A Wrinkle in Time was rejected by more than two dozen external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcScarbF8ncnVv6ywb_gswBn5W5JHkC67QNKsJk1z1NRKsCtANgcpublishers before Farrar, Straus and Giroux finally released it in 1962. Elegant, imaginative, and filled with complex moral themes, the acclaimed Newbery Medal winner tells the story of Meg Murry, a young girl who external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSKW2CQbee7MnVKhxQpMSWr_1qtq10swNBV_7Rr67bFvWIb2yukthrough time with her psychically gifted younger brother to rescue their scientist father from a planet controlled by an evil entity known as the Dark Thing. Throughout her career, L'Engle would return to the Murry family three more times, in A Wind in the Door (1973), A Swiftly Tilting Planet (1978), and Many Waters (1986). The Time Quartet, as these four books have come to be called, weaves together elements of theology and quantum physics often assumed to be far too esoteric for children to understand. Yet, it became a true classic of juvenalia. L'Engle explained once, "You have to write the book that wants to be written. And if the book will be too difficult for grown-ups, then you write it for children."

Madeleine L'Engle has over 35 books to her name, including science fiction, suspense novels, novels for young adults, poetry, plays, and nonfiction. Nearly all of her books reflect her struggles with Christian theology and her fervent belief in the values of family love and moral responsibility. A Wrinkle in Time, one of her earlier novels, is a blend of science fiction and fantasy, aimed at a young adult audience.
L'Engle has stated that any theory of writing must also be a theory of cosmology: "One cannot discuss structure in writing without discussing structure in all life; it is impossible to talk about why anybody writes a book or paints a picture or composes a symphony without talking about the nature of the universe."
Madeleine and Hugh in 1945, just before their marriage.
Madeleine and Hugh in 1945, just before their marriage.
Wrinkle in Time
reflects a cosmology heavily influenced by Christian theology and modern physics. L'Engle wrote the book as part of her rebellion against Christian piety and her quest for a personal theology. At the time, she was also reading with great interest the new physics of Albert Einstein and Max Planck. L'Engle's ideas about human life and non-linear time play an important role in this novel and distinguish it from other spiritual and time-travel narratives.

external image 220px-Madeleine_lengle.jpgL'Engle initially had tremendous difficulty publishing this novel because publishers could not identify a market for it among either children or adults. L'Engle insisted that she wrote for people, because "people read books." For two years, she received rejection after rejection, a frustrating process she describes at length in her autobiography A Circle of Quiet (1972). Finally, in 1962, John Farrar of Farrar, Strauss, & Giroux agreed to publish the book even though he did not expect it to sell. To the surprise of the publishing world, the book was wildly successful. It was awarded the 1963 Newbery Medal and has now been translated into over 15 languages. L'Engle later wrote a whole series about the Murry family called the Time Fantasy series, including A Wind in the Door (1973), A Swiftly Tilting Planet (1978), Many Waters (1986), and An Acceptable Time (1996).
In addition to her YA novels, the prolific writer also penned adult fiction, poems, plays, memoirs, and religious meditations. She served as the longtime librarian and writer-in-residence for the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine. Madeleine L'Engle passed away at a nursing home in Connecticut in 2007.
What is a Tesseract ?wrinkle-in-time.gif

Tesseract is a term that describes the "wrinkling" of time and space, allowing two points to be connected through this fifth dimension rather than forcing you to travel on a straight line. For example, if you take points A and B and connect them with a piece of string, the shortest route would be to walk along the straight piece of string. But in tessering, you could wrinkle the string, or fold it upon itself, so that points A and B would be right next to each other, allowing you to just walk across. It is how the people travel to distant planets in A Wrinkle in Time.

In Chapter 5 of the book, Mrs. Which informs Meg that her father is trapped behind "the darkness". Mrs. Whatsit assures her that they are traveling to help him. She explains that they travel by tessering, which involves taking shortcuts through time and space. Seeing that Meg remains confused, Charles Wallace explains that tessering is travel in the fifth dimension: the first dimension is a line; the second is a square; the third is a cube; the fourth is Einstein's concept of time; and the fifth is a tesseract. By adding the tesseract to the other four dimensions, they travel in such a way that the shortest distance between two points is not a straight line. Although Meg does not completely understand, she contents herself with this explanation.

"You see," Mrs. Whatsit said, "if a very small insect were to move from the section of skirt in Mrs. Who's right hand to that in her left, it would be quite a long walk for him if he had to walk straight across."

external image wrinkle1.gif
Swiftly Mrs. Who brought her hands, still holding the skirt, together.

"Now, you see," Mrs. Whatsit said, "he would be there, without that long trip. That is how we travel."

external image wrinkle2.gif
Mrs. Who's movement of her skirt changes the one dimensional line of before. The curve she forms is still technically one dimensional (that is, any point on the curve can be described by a single coordinate), but by connecting the two endpoints of the line together, she describes an elliptical polygon, which exists in a two dimensional plane. Mrs. Who's "trip" had to involve the next higher dimension. The "wrinkle in time" concept hinges upon using the fourth (or fifth-more on this later) dimension to similarly bend and join parts of the familiar three (or four) dimensional world in which the reader, L'Engle, and our characters live. The idea is that the fabric of space/time 'wrinkles'-folds onto itself, creating new paths for travel.
Jessica Weare, "Mathematical Analysis," Brown University, http://www.math.brown.edu/~banchoff/Yale/project12/math.html
"The Black Thing"
Illustration of a young black hole, such as the two distant dust-free quasars spotted recently by the Spitzer Space Telescope. More photos of black holes of the universe Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Illustration of a young black hole, such as the two distant dust-free quasars spotted recently by the Spitzer Space Telescope. More photos of black holes of the universe Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
L'Engle's treatment of "the darkness" curiously recalls the astronomical concept of dark matter. "The Black Thing" is not necessarily an entity in and of itself; it is observed mainly through its effect on worlds, planets, and galaxies discussed in the book. This is analogous to the modern idea of dark matter in the universe-basically invisible, astronomers note its presence through the gravitational effects of its mass on objects.

Although most of the modern theory of dark matter had been developed since A Wrinkle in Time was published in 1962, the idea of an invisible substance that drastically affects the order and motion of objects is centuries old:

"James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), founder of the modern theory of electromagnetism, wrote [that] 'Whatever difficulties we may have in forming a consistent idea of the constitution of the aether [proposed invisible 'glue' of the universe, which some mathematicians have purported to exist between objects in space, both on large and small scales], there can be no doubt that the interplanetary and interstellar spaces are not empty, but are occupied by a material substance or body, which is certainly the largest, and probably the most uniform body of which we have any knowledge.'" * (*Quoted by Rudy Rucker in his book The Fourth Dimension. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1984. Page 71.)

Jessica Weare, "Mathematical Analysis," Brown University, http://www.math.brown.edu/~banchoff/Yale/project12/math.html

Black Holes: Facts, Theory & Definition

by Nola Taylor Redd, SPACE.com Contributor | February 08, 2013 05:47pm ET

Black holes are some of the strangest and most fascinating objects found in outer space. They are objects of extreme density, with such strong gravitational attraction that even light cannot escape from their grasp if it comes near enough.
Albert Einstein first predicted black holes in 1916 with his general theory of relativity. The term "black hole" was coined in 1967 by American astronomer John Wheeler, and the first one was discovered in 1971.

There are three types: stellar black holes, supermassive black holes and intermediate black holes.

Stellar black holes — small but deadly
An artist's depiction of a star and its companion black hole, known as an X-ray binary system. These systems were responsible for heating the early universe in the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang.  Credit: ESA, NASA, Felix Mirabel.
An artist's depiction of a star and its companion black hole, known as an X-ray binary system. These systems were responsible for heating the early universe in the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang. Credit: ESA, NASA, Felix Mirabel.

When a star burns through the last of its fuel, it may find itself collapsing. For smaller stars, up to about three times the sun's mass, the new core will be a neutron star or a white dwarf. But when a larger star collapses, it continues to fall in on itself to create a stellar black hole.

Black holes formed by the collapse of individual stars are (relatively) small, but incredibly dense. Such an object packs three times or more the mass of the sun into a city-size range. This leads to a crazy amount of gravitational force pulling on objects around it. Black holes consume the dust and gas from the galaxy around them, growing in size.

Supermassive black holes — the birth of giants

An artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole at the centre surrounded by matter flowing onto the black hole in what is termed an accretion disk. Also shown is an outflowing jet of energetic particles, believed to be powered by the black hole's spin. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
An artist’s impression of a supermassive black hole at the centre surrounded by matter flowing onto the black hole in what is termed an accretion disk. Also shown is an outflowing jet of energetic particles, believed to be powered by the black hole's spin. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Small black holes populate the universe, but their cousins, supermassive black holes, dominate. Supermassive black holes are millions or even billions of times as massive as the sun, but have a radius similar to that of Earth's closest star. Such black holes are thought to lie at the center of pretty much every galaxy, including the Milky Way.

Scientists aren't certain how such large black holes spawn. Once they've formed, they can easily gather mass from the dust and gas around them, material that is plentiful in the center of galaxies, allowing them to grow to enormous sizes.

Intermediate black holes – stuck in the middle

Scientists once thought black holes came in only small and large sizes, but recent research has revealed the possibility for the existence of midsize, or intermediate, black holes. Such bodies could form when stars in a cluster collide in a chain reaction. Several of these forming in the same region could eventually fall together in the center of a galaxy and create a supermassive black hole.

Interesting facts about black holes:

  • If you fell into a black hole, gravity would stretch you out like spaghetti. Don't worry; your death would come before you reached singularity.
  • Black holes do not "suck." Suction is caused by pulling something into a vacuum, which the massive black hole
    These images, taken with NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Pan-STARRS1 telescope in Hawaii, show a brightening inside a galaxy caused by a flare from its nucleus. The arrow in each image points to the galaxy. The flare is a signature of the galaxy's central black hole shredding a star that wandered too close.  Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JHU/STScI/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA
    These images, taken with NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the Pan-STARRS1 telescope in Hawaii, show a brightening inside a galaxy caused by a flare from its nucleus. The arrow in each image points to the galaxy. The flare is a signature of the galaxy's central black hole shredding a star that wandered too close. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/JHU/STScI/Harvard-Smithsonian CfA
    definitely is not. Instead, objects fall into them.
  • The first object considered to be a black hole is Cygnus X-1. Rockets carrying Geiger counters discovered eight new x-ray sources. In 1971, scientists detected radio emission coming from Cygnus X-1, and a massive hidden companion was found and identified as a black hole.
  • Cygnus X-1 was the subject of a 1974 friendly wager between Stephen Hawking and a fellow physicist Kip Thorne, with Hawking betting that the source was not a black hole. In 1990, he conceded defeat. [VIDEO: Final Nail in Stephen Hawking's Cygnus X-1 Bet?]
  • Miniature black holes may have formed immediately after the Big Bang. Rapidly expanding space may have squeezed some regions into tiny, dense black holes less massive than the sun.
  • If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
  • Astronomers estimate there are anywhere from 10 million to a billion stellar black holes, with masses roughly thrice that of the sun, in the Milky Way.
  • The interesting relationship between string theory and black holes gives rise to more types of massive giants than found under conventional classical mechanics.

Images: Space.com; http://www.space.com/15421-black-holes-facts-formation-discovery-sdcmp.html

external image WrinkleInTime2.jpgList of Characters

Meg Murry - The book's heroine and protagonist, a homely, awkward, but loving high school student who is sent on an adventure through time and space with her brother and her friend Calvin to rescue her father from the evil force that is attempting to take over the universe. Meg's greatest faults are her anger, impatience, and lack of self-confidence, but she channels and overcomes them, ultimately emerging victorious.Charles Wallace Murry - Meg's extraordinarily intelligent five-year-old younger brother who is capable of reading minds and understanding other creatures in a way that none of the other Murry children can.
Calvin O'Keefe - A popular boy and talented athlete in Meg's high school who accompanies the Murry children on their adventure. Calvin comes from a large family that does not really care about him, but he nonetheless demonstrates a strong capacity for love and affection, and shows a burgeoning romantic interest in Meg.
IT - The disembodied brain that controls all the inhabitants of Camazotz with its revolting, pulsing rhythm. IT, identified with the Black Thing, is the embodiment of evil on this planet.
The Black Thing - A cold and dark shadow that symbolizes the evil forces that Meg, Calvin, and Charles external image w_sisters01.jpgWallace must fight against in order to rescue their father.
Mrs. Whatsit - The youngest of the three celestial beings who accompany the children on their adventure. Meg initially comes to know Mrs. Whatsit as the tramp who stole bed-sheets from their neighbors and then sought shelter from a storm in the Murrys' warm kitchen. She later learns that Mrs. Whatsit gave up her existence as a star in order to fight the Dark Thing.
Mrs. Which - The oldest of the three celestial beings who accompany the children on their adventure. Mrs. Which has difficulty materializing and is usually just a shimmering gleam. Her unconventional speech is usually rendered in capitalized words, with the first consonants repeated several times.
external image mqdefault.jpgMrs. Who - The second of the three celestial beings who accompany the children on their adventure. She usually speaks in quotations from famous thinkers and writers because she finds it too difficult to craft her own sentences. When the children first meet Mrs. Who, she is sewing sheets in the haunted house in their neighborhood.
Mr. Murry - Meg's father and a physicist who works for a top-secret government agency on experiments with travel through space-time in the fifth dimension. In trying to tesser to Mars (i.e., travel through a tesseract, or wrinkle in time), he is captured and imprisoned on the dark planet of Camazotz. When the plot begins, no one on Earth hasexternal image tumblr_mdpssrN3sD1ra1eiho1_500.jpg heard from him for over a year.
Aunt Beast - This tall, furry, many-tentacled inhabitant of the planet Ixchel cares lovingly for Meg after she is nearly destroyed by the Black Thing. Aunt Beast, like all the creatures on Ixchel, lacks eyes and has no concept of light or vision.
Happy Medium - A jolly, clairvoyant woman in a silk turban and satin gown who shows the children a vision of Earth through her crystal ball. The Medium is reluctant to show them anything unpleasant, but the Mrs. W's insist that they see what they are up against.
Man with the Red Eyes - A robot-like inhabitant of Camazotz who tries to hypnotize Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building. The Man, like all of Camazotz, is totally controlled by the power of IT.
external image Meg___A_Wrinkle_in_Time_by_megathy_thumb.jpgMrs. Murry - Meg's mother and an experimental biologist who works out of a lab in the Murry home. She is at once a brilliant scientist and a loving mother who cooks meals for her family on her Bunsen burner. She also writes loving letters to her absent husband every night.
Mr. Jenkins - Meg's cold and unfeeling high-school principal who calls her"belligerent and uncooperative" and implies that her family is in denial about Mr. Murry's true whereabouts.
Mrs. Buncombe - The wife of the constable in Meg's hometown, who has twelve bed-sheets stolen from her at the beginning of the novel.
Sandy and Dennys Murry - Meg's athletic and socially successful ten-year-old twin brothers who encourage her to let them fight off the bullies who make fun of Charles Wallace. The twins do not accompany Meg and Charles Wallace on their interplanetary adventure.

A Glossary of Terms - A Wrinkle In Time

Vocabulary Words
Chapters 1-4
antagonistic- adj. hostile; unfriendly

assimilate- v. to absorb; to understand

delinquent- n. a troubled child, often in trouble with authorities.

diction- n. manner of speaking; pronunciation

Dr. Denton's- n. a brand of pajamas made for children

ephemeral- adj. short-lived; temporary

preliminaries- n. preparations; beginnings

prodigious- adj. tremendous; amazing

relinquish- v. to let go; to abandon

tangible- adj. touchable; real; solid

tractable- adj. manageable; obedient

void- n. a state of non-existence

wraithlike- adj. ghostly

Chapters 5-8
aberration- n. change from the normal

bilious- adj. irritable, as if suffering from indigestion

connotation- n. an idea that is implied or suggested

corporeal- adj. having material or physical form or substance

deviate- v. to cause or turn away from a previous or expected course

diverting- v. to turn one's attention by providing enjoyment, pleasant entertaining

dwindle- v. to lessen; to shrink

insolent- adj. marked by casual disrespect

miasma- n. unhealthy vapors rising from the ground or other sources

myopic- adj. nearsighted; shortsighted

obliquely- adv. slantingly; indirectly; at one side

ominous- adj. threatening or foreshadowing evil or tragic developments

pendantic- adj. marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects

perturbed- adj. troubled; upset

precipitously- adv. abruptly; steeply

recourse- n. act of turning to for assistance

reverberate- v. to echo; to vibrate

sadist- n. one who enjoys causing pain

sinister- adj. stemming from evil characteristics or forces; wicked or dishonorable

swivet- n. a panic or extreme discomposure

synthetic- adj. not of natural origin prepared or made artificially

wary- adj. marked by keen caution and watchful prudence

wheedle- v. to plead; to coax

Chapters 9-12
appalling- adj. to cause gross emotional consternation (fear resulting from apparent danger)

assuage- v. provide physical relief, as from pain

atrophied- (of an organ or body part) v. diminished in size or strength as a result of disease or injury or lack of use

brusquely- adv. roughly; impatiently

corrosive- adj. of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action

despondency- adj. feeling disheartened, downcast and hopeless

distraught- adj. upset; distressed; deeply agitated, especially from emotion

emanate- v. to flow out; to radiate; proceed to issue forth, as from a source

fallible- adj. weak in moral strength, courage or will; having the attributes of a man as opposed to e.g., divine beings

imperceptible- adj. impossible or difficult to perceive by the mind or senses

impenetrable- adj. inaccessible; indestructible

inexorable- adj. impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason
omnipotent- adj. all powerful; god-like

reiterate- v. to say, state or perform again

relinquish- v. to release, as if from one's grip

reverberate- v. to ring or echo as with sound

translucent- adj. allowing light through

transparent- adj. clear

trepidation- n. anxiety; fear; a feeling of alarm or dread

unadulterated- adj. not mixed with impurities; pure

vestige- n. an indication that something has been present;evidence that something has existed

withstand- v. resist or confront with resistance

exuberance- n. joyful enthusiasm

Key Facts - A Wrinkle In Time Full Title: A Wrinkle in Time
Genre: Young adult fantasy
Setting: Earth, the planet Camazotz, the universe
Climax: Meg saves Charles Wallace, her younger brother, from the clutches of IT by simply loving him.
Antagonist: The Black Thing, the Darkness, or IT
Point of View: Limited third-person narrative from Meg Murry's point of view

Historical and Literary Context When Written: 1959-60
Where Written: New York City
When Published: 1962

Literary Period: Post-War American Literature
Related Literary Works: The novels most closely similar to A Wrinkle In Time, with its combination of science fiction and its exploration of a personal Christian-based morality are the sequels that Madeleine L'Engle wrote to her original novel, which follow the further experiences of the Murry children: A Wind in the Door, A Swiftly Tilting Planet, and Many Waters. In terms of traveling to "parallel universes," some note that the "tesseracts" in A Wrinkle In Time function much like the wardrobe, etc., in C.S. Lewis' beloved fantasy series, The Chronicles of Narnia.

"Extra Credit"
Meg and Madeleine. Like Meg, Madeleine L'Engle was a shy and clumsy girl who struggled in school and was looked down on by the teachers, though she was intelligent. And like the Murrys, the L'Engles lived for a while in an old farmhouse in rural New England.
Is time travel possible? Einstein's theory of relativity suggests time travel should be possible in theory, but it is still unknown as to whether man can actually do it. Still, there's plenty of real enough math in A Wrinkle in Time to begin understanding what time represented as the fifth dimension is.

Short Answer Questions - A Wrinkle In Time
Answer each question with the appropriate short response.

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 1
1. What is the weather like the night Mrs. Whatsit appeared at the Murry house?
2. Why is school "all wrong" for Meg in Chapter 1?
3. When Meg enters the kitchen at the beginning of the book, who is already there?
4. Who is Fortinbras?
5. After Meg, who is the next family member to enter the kitchen in Chapter 1?
6. What does Charles Wallace offer to make in the kitchen?
7. Why does Meg look at her mother with a mixture of admiration and resentment in Chapter 1?
8. Where does Charles Wallace say Mrs. Whatsit lives with her two friends?
9. Who was Charles Wallace with when he discovered where Mrs. Whatsit and her friends lived?
10. The dog growls at the lab door and Mrs. Murry goes to see who's there. When she returns, whodoes she bring inside?
11. When Meg first sees Mrs. Whatsit in Chapter 1, how is she dressed?
12. Through Charles Wallace, readers discover that Mrs. Whatsit took something from Mrs. Buncombe. What did she take?
13. What does Mrs. Whatsit say in Chapter 1 that makes Mrs. Murry's face turn white?
14. How did Mrs. Whatsit know where Charles Wallace lived?
15. Charles Wallace and Mrs. Murry offer food to Mrs. Whatsit. She expresses a fondness for what?
16. What does Mrs. Whatsit call Mrs. Murry that "one wouldn't ordinarily think of calling Mrs. Murry?"
17. Why does Meg get into a fight with a boy after school?
18. Where is Meg's bedroom?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 2
1. Who do Charles Wallace, Meg and Fortinbras meet at the house in the woods?
2. Why are Sandy and Dennys upset that they weren't awakened when the "tramp" was in the house?
3. Why does Dennys believe that Charles Wallace will have a hard time in school next year?
4. What does school principal Jenkins call Meg when he scolds her in his office?
5. How does the author describe Calvin O'Keefe when Meg and Charles Wallace first meet him?
6. What prompted Calvin to go to the haunted house?
7. How old is Calvin?
8. Who do the children meet when they enter the haunted house in Chapter 2?
9. What is the individual that the children meet in the haunted house in Chapter 2 wearing and doing?
10. How could Mrs. Who's manner of speech be described?
11. What does the individual that the children meet in the haunted house in Chapter 2 call Charles Wallace and Meg?
12. What does Calvin call Charles Wallace in Chapter 2?
13. Why isn't Charles Wallace scared or suspicious of Mrs. Who when he meets her?
14. Despite what Mr. Jenkins the Principal says, Meg still believes her father is returning. Why?
15. Why does Charles Wallace insist they go and see Mrs. Whatsit in Chapter 2?
16. Why does Charles Wallace agree to take Fortinbras with them into the woods?
17. What worries Charles Wallace about going to school next year?
18. Why does Calvin come to the house in Chapter 2?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 3
1. What does Calvin say to Meg on their way to her house in Chapter 3?
2. When the kids return home in Chapter 3, what is Mrs. Murry doing in her lab?
3. Who does Calvin want to call from the Murry home?
4. In Chapter 3, why does Calvin say Meg is so lucky?
5. Seeing the picture of Meg's father, who does Calvin say he looks like?
6. Before dinner is served in Chapter 3, Mrs. Murry tells Meg to do what?
7. When Calvin says he's horrible in math, what does Mrs. Murry suggest he do?
8. Why is Meg bored in math class?
9. Who does Mrs. Murry blame for Meg being a little "one-sided?"
10. What impresses the twins about Calvin more than Meg?
11. After their dinner with Calvin, what does Mrs. Murry admit to Meg?
12. How does Mrs. Murry explain that Charles Wallace may look like other people but is different?
13. What does Calvin read to Charles Wallace before putting him to bed in Chapter 3?
14. Why does Mrs. Murry tell Calvin she continues with an experiment that afternoon that she and Mr. Murry had started earlier?
15. Meg asks her mother to tell her more about the tesseract in Chapter 3, but what does Mrs. Murry tell her instead?
16. Whose vegetable garden do Meg and Calvin walk through in Chapter 3?
17. Just as Calvin tells Meg she has "dream-boat eyes," who appears from out of nowhere?
18. Who appears after Mrs. Whatsit and Mrs. Who, proclaiming that "weee hhave mmuch ttoo ddoo?"

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 4
1. What happens in Chapter 4 when Meg suddenly finds herself alone in darkness and has no sense of where sheis?
2. When Meg finally joins Charles Wallace and Calvin in Chapter 4, what does she first notice about hersurroundings?
3. on what planet have the children landed in Chapter 4?
4. What does Mrs. Whatsit say they do instead of travel at the speed of anything?
5. What explanation does Mrs. Whatsit give for stopping on the planet they do in Chapter 4?
6. What does Mrs. Who tell Meg she must learn in order to help her father?
7. What happens to Mrs. Whatsit before they leave the planet they landed on in Chapter 4?
8. What does Calvin do in Chapter 4 that Mrs. Whatsit tells him never to do in her presence?
9. How do Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin travel with Mrs. Whatsit?10. Along the way, Meg hears some birds who seem to be telling her something. Who translates their words for her?
11. Why does Mrs. Whatsit give each child a flower for the journey?
12. How does Meg feel when she notices the dark shadow?
13. When Meg slides off Mrs. Whatsit's back in Chapter 4, what does she ask Mrs. Which about the dark shadow?
14. After Meg sees the dark thing, who is she most concerned for?
15. Who accompanies Meg on the flight to see the Black Thing?
16. After Mrs. Whatsit metamorphoses, what do the children call her?
17. As the children fly up in Chapter 4, why does Meg look at Charles Wallace with a bit of sadness?
18. When Mrs. Whatsit rests on a plateau in Chapter 4, what does she show the children?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 5
1. Why does Mrs. Whatsit tell Meg not to cry after seeing the dark shadow?
2. As stated in Chapter 5, how will the group travel?
3. What is the example Mrs. Whatsit and Mrs. Who utilize to illustrate how tessering works?
4. Why does Meg initially not understand the explanation of tessering?
5. In what dimension do Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who and Mrs. Which travel?
6. What part of the tesseract were Meg's parents working on before her father disappeared?
7. When the children and the ladies are about to tesser in Chapter 5, who goes first?
8. During the tesseract, the children nearly stop somewhere before a voice says they can't because _.
9. When the children and the ladies arrive at their new destination in Chapter 5, what does Mrs. Whatsit look like?
10. In Chapter 5, when does Mrs. Whatsit say the children will return home?
11. Who are the children and the ladies going to visit in Chapter 5?
12. How old does Mrs. Whatsit say she is?
13. Why is the Happy Medium reluctant to look at the children's home planet?
14. What do the children see when they look into the Happy Medium's ball?
15. In Chapter 5, where does Mrs. Whatsit say Meg's father is?
16. What does the Happy Medium live in?
17. What does the Happy Medium first show in her crystal ball?
18. According to Mrs. Whatsit, how long has the Dark Thing been darkening the beauty of the earth?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 6
1. What does the Medium show everyone as proof that the Dark Thing can be overcome?
2. After seeing the Happy Medium's proof that the Dark Thing can be overcome, what does Charles Wallace
discover about Mrs. Whatsit?
3. What did Mrs. Whatsit not mean to tell the children about being a star?
4. Why does the Happy Medium fall asleep?
5. When Meg realizes she's hungry and hasn't had much to eat since the stew at home, what does Charles Wallace reveal about the three old ladies and their eating habits?
6. Why does the Happy Medium feel embarrassed when she shows Calvin's mother in her crystal ball?
7. How does Meg react when the Happy Medium shows her mother in the crystal ball?
8. What is the last thing Mrs. Whatsit says to Charles Wallace before he tessers to Camazotz?
9. What is Meg's first impression of Camazotz upon arriving?
10. What does Mrs. Whatsit give to Charles Wallace before they part ways in Chapter 6?
11. What does Mrs. Who give to Meg in Chapter 6?
12. What does Mrs. Whatsit order Charles Wallace NOT to do while on Camazotz?
13. When Charles Wallace, Meg, and Calvin enter town on Camazotz, what do they think is odd about the children?
14. How many children are bouncing balls out of rhythm in Camazotz?
15. When Calvin goes to return the ball that a little boy dropped on the street, why is the boy's mother is reluctant to let him in?
16. A boy on his paper route stops and asks Calvin, Meg, and Charles Wallace what they're doing on the street when only who is allowed out?
17. According to the Route Boy, what is in this most oriented city on the planet?
18. What is the strange feeling that Calvin has before they go to CENTRAL Central Intelligence?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 7
1. Meg and Charles Wallace refuse to let Calvin go into the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building by himself. Why?
2. What do Calvin, Meg, and Charles Wallace see at the end of the room filled with machines in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building?
3. What does the face of the strange man who communicates with Meg, Charles Wallace, and Calvin in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building look like?
4. What does Charles Wallace tell Meg and Calvin to do in front of the strange man in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building?
5. How does the man with strange eyes in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building try to control the children's minds?
6. Charles does something to the man with strange eyes that he learned from his older twin brothers. What does he do?
7. When Charles focuses on the strange man's eyes in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building, why does Meg jump on her younger brother with all her might?
8. How does the man with strange eyes react to Meg's action toward Charles when Charles was looking into his eyes?
9. While in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building, Meg asks for food because she's hungry. What do four men in smocks arrive with moments later?
10. Why can't Charles Wallace taste any of the food in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building?
11. Charles Wallace pulls Meg and Calvin aside in the CENTRAL Central Intelligence building to tell them what?
12. Once Charles Wallace has been successfully hypnotized by the man with strange eyes, how does Meg react?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 8
1. Although Charles Wallace looks the same after being hypnotized, he acts as if 'possessed'? How does Meg know this?
2. After the Man with Red Eyes orders his men to release Meg and Calvin, he identifies himself as .

3. When the Man with the Red Eyes decides to let Meg see her father, who does he assign to take her?
4. What does Calvin attempt with Charles Wallace that nearly costs him and Meg to lose their chance to get to Mr. Murry?
5. Charles Wallace leads Calvin and Meg through a wall by raising his hand. What exactly did he do to get through a solid wall?
6. Meg and Calvin repeatedly question Charles Wallace on their way to Mr. Murry. In response, what does he warn them he will do?
7. Before the children reach Mr. Murry in Chapter 8, who does Charles Wallace show them?
8. Charles Wallace takes Meg and Calvin to a transparent column. Who is in that column?
9. What is Charles Wallace's interesting explanation for the lack of conflict on Camazotz?
10. After being hypnotized, what does Charles Wallace call Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who, and Mrs. Which?
11. In Chapter 8, Charles says everything on Camazotz is in order. Why?
12. What does the Man with Red Eyes say when Calvin accuses him of hypnotizing Charles Wallace?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 9
1. What happens when Meg rushes to the object with her father inside?
2. How does Charles Wallace react to Meg rushing to the object containing their father in Chapter 9?
3. How has Mr. Murry's appearance changed when the children see him in Chapter 9?
4. What does Meg do when Charles Wallace doesn't let her inside the object containing her father?
5. What does Charles Wallace tell Meg in Chapter 9 that she must do in order to get to her father?
6. How does Calvin nearly break Charles Wallace out of his spell in Chapter 9?
7. What eventually gets Meg through the object containing her father and able to get to him?
8.Soon after Meg is reunited with her father in Chapter 9, what, to her horror, does she realize about him?
9. What does Meg give her father in Chapter 9 when she realizes what is wrong with him upon their being reunited
10. What happens when Mr. Murry puts Mrs. Who's glasses on?
11. Where does Charles Wallace take Meg, Calvin and Mr. Murry in Chapter 9?
12. What is IT?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 10
1. After she tessers with her father and Calvin out of Camazotz, what happens to Meg?
2. Why does Meg conclude in Chapter 10 that her father isn't very good at tessering?
3. Despite escaping IT with her father, why does Meg feel things have gotten worse and worse?
4. What are the Things in Chapter 10?
5. When one of the Things scoops Meg up, what does it tell Mr. Murry it's doing?
6. Why is Mr. Murry able to keep from being absorbed by IT?
7. What finally saves Mr. Murry from being absorbed by IT?
8. Why is Mr. Murry unsure how long he was imprisoned on Camazotz?
9. How did Mr. Murry end up on Camazotz?
10. Why is Meg so cold in her paralysis?
11. When Meg can speak, she tells her father firmly, in a voice never used with him before, that they shouldn't have tessered. Why?
12. When the Thing picks Meg up, how many of its arms does it use to cradle her?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 11
1. In Chapter 11, when Mr. Murry demands the Beasts put Meg down, who do they ask to speak with?
2. Why does one of the Beasts insist that Meg gets treated promptly?
3. How do the Beasts help Meg recover?
4. What sense do the Beasts not have that surprises Meg?
5. Why does the beast tell Meg she can't go to rescue her brother just yet?
6. Who comes up with the idea for the name "Aunt Beast"?
7. What is the name of the Beasts' planet?
8. Aunt Beast tells Meg that in the fight against the Black Thing, the following helps the Beasts:
9. When Meg is reunited with her father at the Beasts' dining table, why does she feel distant from him?
10. At first, Meg cannot get enough of the Beasts' delicious food, but she loses her appetite when her father says _.
11. Why does Mr. Murry hand Mrs. Who's glasses back to Meg in Chapter 11?
12. Calvin urges Meg to try to explain to everyone who Mrs. Whatsit, Mrs. Who and Mrs. Which are, but she fumbles. Why?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 12
1. Before seeing anyone new enter the Beasts' dining area in Chapter 12, Meg's heart "pounds with hope." Why?
2. Why can't Meg hug Mrs. Whatsit when she sees her again in Chapter 12?
3. What is the reminder Mrs. Whatsit says about Camazotz that pains Meg?
4. Why won't the Mrs. W's help Mr. Murry tesser back to Camazotz?
5. Why does Meg realize she's the only one who can rescue Charles Wallace?
6. Aside from Mrs. Whatsit, who else is certain that Meg won't encounter a fatal danger when she goes to rescue Charles Wallace?
7. Mrs. Whatsit says that if the Happy Medium could always tell them what was going to happen, they would be just like the people of Camazotz because: _.
8. When Meg is about to leave on her rescue mission, why does she ask her father for forgiveness?
9. Mrs. Whatsit says the reason that Mr. Murry is bad at tessering is: ___.
10. What gift does Mrs. Whatsit give to Meg before she leaves on her rescue mission at the end of the novel?
11. What is it that Meg has but IT does not have?
12. When all of the main characters get back to Earth, where do they land?

~ The Chronicles of Narnia ~

~ The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe ~by C.S. Lewis
Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe.bookcover.jpg
Narnia . . . a land frozen in eternal winter . . . a country waiting to be set free.
Four adventurers step through a wardrobe door and into the land of Narnia, a land enslaved by the power of the White Witch. But when almost all hope is lost, the return of the Great Lion, Aslan, signals a great change . . . and a great sacrifice.
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is either the first or the second book in C.S. Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia, depending on who you talk to. The entire series that has become part of the canon of classic literature, drawing readers of all ages into a magical land with unforgettable characters for over fifty years.
From a review in England's The Guardian: "Season's Readings: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis:" "Always winter and never Christmas; think of that!" The White Witch who has plunged Narniaexternal image 61-%2Bwv4kDsL.jpg into an everlasting freeze is the antithesis to Father Christmas; like him, she travels by sleigh and reindeer, dispensing delightful sweetmeats, but the jingling of her bells is a herald of mortal danger rather than celebration. When, later in the book, her powers on the wane, she comes across a group of satyrs and small animals enjoying their Christmas dinner, she rounds on them: "What is the meaning of all this gluttony, this waste, this self-indulgence?"
When CS Lewis was writing The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, in 1949, the times were hardly self-indulgent. Though it is only mentioned once, the novel is set during the second world war, the
external image london-blitz-kids.jpg
children evacuated from London air raids to the rambling country house in which they find the wardrobe that acts as a portal to Narnia; and it's not hard to see in the longing for comfort and warmth in unending depths of winter a reference to the privations of war and rationing.
The book is full of snug boltholes, from Mr Tumnus's cave to the Beavers' hut, and laden with glorious midwinter feasts: the "wonderful tea" Lucy enjoys with her faun ("a nice brown egg, lightly boiled... and then sardines on toast, and then buttered toast, and then toast with honey, and then a sugar-topped cake"), the fresh-caught trout the children eat with the Beaversexternal image 6a014e5fb9e8aa970c0192ab1709de970d-800wi (accompanied by "a great big lump of deep yellow butter ... from which everyone took as much as he wanted to go with his potatoes").
And of course Narnia is a country at war, with a lupine secret police force, and a resistance movement making moonlit flits across the snowy landscape. There's a poignant moment when Mrs Beaver is loth to leave her precious sewing machine behind to be smashed up or impounded: "I can't abide the thought of that Witch fiddling with it, and breaking it or stealing it, as likely as not." Informer Edmund has his own snowy trek, to the Witch's icy palace, during which he gets thoroughly wet and miserable; the wintry landscape is sublime, but also properly hard-going.fatherchristmas.jpgWhile the blanket of snow helps to delineate Narnia's magic at the beginning of the book, with the onset of the thaw heralding Aslan's arrival, an even better literary spell is cast as Narnia is revealed in all its vernal glory ("you will hardly be able to imagine what a relief those green patches were after the endless white"). Lewis's genius is to telescope the symbolic rebirth of Christmas and the real rebirth of spring into a few dozen pages: the jingling of sleigh bells, along with the "chattering, murmuring, bubbling, splashing, roaring" sound of running water, breaking in on the muffled stillness of snow.
Lewis takes Father Christmas as seriously as young children do. When she meets him, Lucy "felt running through her that deep shiver of gladness which you only get if you are being solemn and still". Huge, "in a bright red robe with a hood that had fur inside it and a great white beard that fell like a foamy waterfall over his chest", he is a red man rather than a green man, but similarly a pagan life force to set against the Witch's deathly spell. He shares Aslan's quality of inspiring joy and fear."
C.S. Lewis, His Life And Works

cslewis1.smile.jpgby Professor Art LindseyC.S. Lewis Institute

Clive Staples "C.S." Lewis was born on November 29, 1898 in Belfast, Ireland (see chronology). He died on November 22, 1963, the same day President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. He had only one sibling, a brother, Warren, who was three years older and with whom he remained friends all his life. C.S. Lewis' earliest memories involve "endless books" in the study, dining room, cloakroom, in the bedrooms, and piled as high as his shoulder in the attic. On the often dreary days, time would be spent in reading and in imaginative games involving "dressed animals" and "knights in armor." These were the subjects of his first novel, Boxen, written at the age of twelve.
external image younglewis.jpgPerhaps the most significant event of his early life was the death of his mother when he was age nine. Lewis says in his autobiography Surprised by Joy, "With my mother's death all settled happiness . . . disappeared from my life. There was to be much fun, many pleasures, many stabs of joy; but no more of the old security. It was sea and islands now; the great continent had sunk like Atlantis."external image C.-S.-Lewis-young.jpg
At this point he lost not only his mother, but also, in effect, his father. Albert Lewis, perhaps out of grief, withdrew and decided to send both sons to a boarding school. Warren later wrote of his father's choice, "With his uncanny flair for making the wrong decision, my father had given us helpless children into the hands of a madman." In fact, the headmaster whom they called "Oldie" was later declared insane and the school closed.
The Lewis Family at Little Lea  [Photo courtesy of the Marion E. Wade Center, Wheaton, Illinois] [not to be reproduced without written permission]
The Lewis Family at Little Lea [Photo courtesy of the Marion E. Wade Center, Wheaton, Illinois] [not to be reproduced without written permission]

During this period, Lewis attended church and attempted to take his beliefs seriously. He tried to pray every night but developed what he describes as a "false conscience" about it. He had been told that it was not enough to say your prayers but also to think about what you were saying. As soon as he had finished his prayers each night, he would ask himself, "Are you sure you were really thinking about what you were saying?" The answer was inevitably "No." Then he would say his prayers again (and again). This led to insomnia and nightly torment and, Lewis says, "Had I pursued the same road much further, I think I should have gone mad."

When he was sixteen, Lewis was sent to be tutored by W.T. Kirkpatrick. "Kirk" or the "Great Knock"
as he was sometimes called, was a brilliant teacher who taught Lewis to analyze, think, write, and speak clearly and logically. At their first meeting at the train station, young Jack (as he chose to call
C. S. Lewis with his father, Albert. [Photo courtesy of the Marion E. Wade Centre]
C. S. Lewis with his father, Albert. [Photo courtesy of the Marion E. Wade Centre]
himself) made a comment to Kirk about not expecting the "wildness" of the scenery of Surrey. "Stop," said Kirk. "What do you mean by wildness and what grounds do you have for not expecting it?" As he attempted an answer, it became increasingly clear that he had no distinct idea about the word "wildness" and that "insofar as I had any idea at all, 'wildness' was a singularly inept word." "Do you not see, concluded the Great Knock, that your remark was meaningless?" Thinking that the subject had been dropped, Jack proceeded to sulk. Never was he more mistaken. Kirk proceeded to inquire about the
basis of Jack's
Warnie, Albert, and Jack Lewis
Warnie, Albert, and Jack Lewis
expectations about the flora and geology of Surrey. It had never occurred to Jack that his thoughts needed to be based on anything. Kirk concluded, "Do you not see, then, that you had no right to have any opinion whatever on the subject?" This kind of interrogation was the tone of his whole stay with Kirk, and it was of great benefit to Lewis. In fact, much of the clarity of his writing, his careful choice of words, his considered arguments for the faith, and his later tutorial style were shaped during this period. Lewis says: "My debt to him is very great, my reverence to this day undiminished." Some have said that many of his later works were written with a sense that Kirk (although by that time dead) was looking over his shoulder.

MacDonald's "Phantastes"
MacDonald's "Phantastes"
Many factors combined to lead him away from his atheism and to the robust faith of his later years. Lewis often found himself admiring "Christian" poetry more than the "pagan" poetry, but did not know the reason why this was so. Once in a bookstore he bought a copy of George MacDonald's Phantastes. As he read it, a "new quality" touched Lewis' life, what he described at first as a "bright shadow," but later came to realize was "holiness." That night his imagination was "baptized" although "the rest of me, not unnaturally, took longer."

Another significant factor contributing to his later conversion was the destruction of his "chronological snobbery." This is defined as "the uncritical acceptance of the intellectual climate of
Owen Barfield
Owen Barfield
our own age and the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that count discredited." His friend Owen Barfield argued with him
external image owenbarf.jpgthat we must always ask: "Why did it go out of date?" "Was it ever refuted (by whom, where, and how conclusively)?" Our own age is a mere period that has its own characteristic illusions, which can be corrected by reading old books. In fact, Lewis later argued that, "it is a good rule, after reading a new book, never to allow yourself another new one till you have read an old one in between. If that is too much for you, you should read one old one to every three new ones." The only cure to chronological snobbery was to keep the "clean sea breeze of the centuries blowing through our minds and this can be done only by reading old books."

One by one arguments against the faith were answered until already having his imagination
J.R.R. Tolkien
J.R.R. Tolkien
Lewis Warnie.JPG
Jack and brother, Warnie
"baptised" and his reason satisfied, he felt the "steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet." Finally he gave in, knelt and prayed one night "the most dejected and reluctant convert in all England." At this time he only became a Theist and began considering who Christ was and sorting through other religious views. His conversion to Christ was similarly unspectacular. He describes a trip in the sidecar of a motorcycle on the way to the Whipsnade Zoo. When he left for the zoo he did not believe that Christ was the Son of God; when he arrived at the zoo, he did believe that Christ was the Son of God, yet nothing extraordinary had happened along the way.

When Lewis came to faith in 1931, he was already teaching on the English faculty at Magdalen College, Oxford. Within two years, he had written his first apologetic work Pilgrim's Regress external image mere-christianity2%5B1%5D.jpg(1933).
Magdelan College, Oxford
Magdelan College, Oxford
Over the next thirty years Lewis produced a stream of books. He wrote capably in a number of types of literature: philosophical and apologetic works about faith in Christ such as Miracles, The Problem of Pain, Abolition of Man, and Mere Christianity; more imaginative books on the faith such as Screwtape Letters and The Great Divorce; fictional children's books, The Narnia Chronicles, his so-called "space trilogy" (Out of the Silent Planet, Perelandra, and That Hideous Strength), and Till We Have Faces. In English literature he pursued excellence, and his works such as Allegory of Love and English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama are still widely read and highly regarded. He also wrote numerous poems.. In English literature he pursued excellence, and his works such as Allegory of Love and English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama are still widely read and highly regarded. He also wrote numerous poems.

external image THEINKLINGS.jpgDuring his life, he established and maintained many close friendships. One group, "The Inklings," met in Lewis' rooms on Thursday nights during the years 1933-50, and then the meeting place moved to the "Eagle and the Child" pub until Lewis died in 1963. Regular participants were C.S. Lewis' brother, Warren, J.R.R. external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSXvwyw5S4FjIWl_O2F5yLc0UMNz33gLg3pRTFiS1ShaXLF35ERTgTolkien, Dr. R.E. Harvard and Charles Williams. Other attendees included Neville Coghill, Hugo Dyson, Owen Barfield and Adam Fox. The focus of each meeting was a reading from one of the group's works in progress. Tolkien would read a draft of The Lord of the Rings, Lewis a draft of The Great Divorce or Warren Lewis' work on Louis XIV and so on. None of the group's members were shy to criticize, and lively discussions followed, always punctuated with much laughter.
Jack & Joy
C.S. Lewis' marriage to Joy Davidman has been powerfully portrayed in the B.B.C. and Hollywood versions of Shadowlands. The latter version starring Anthony Hopkins and Deborah Winger contains a number of inaccuracies but Douglas Gresham, C.S. Lewis' stepson, described it as "emotionally true." When Jack and Joy married, she had cancer and a long life was not expected. However, when a remarkable remission occurred, they experienced two years of great happiness before the cancer returned, and Joy died in 1960.

Lewis.TIMEmag.jpgOn September 8, 1947, Lewis' picture appeared on the front cover of Time magazine. The heading read "OXFORD'S C.S. LEWIS His Heresy: Christianity." What amazed the secular world was that this Oxford don would write a philosophical defense of miracles. During WW II, Lewis' B.B.C. broadcast of a series (that later became the book Mere Christianity) made his voice widely recognized, second only to that of Winston Churchill.

The appeal of C.S. Lewis' writings continuesLionWitchWardrobeWallpaper1024.jpgto be the way in which he bbc.jpgcombines reason and imagination. He argued that "Christianity, if false, is of no importance, and, if true, of infinite importance. The one thing it cannot be is moderately important." Whether in the realm of reason or imagination, in personal or public life, Lewis maintained:

"I believe in Christianity as I believe that the sun has risen-not only because I see it, but because by it I see everything else."

Professor Art Lindsey, C.S. Lewis Institute
Further Reading on Lewis' life: "C. S. Lewis: A Profile of His Life," Lyle Dorsett, C.S. Lewis Institute

The Life of C.S. Lewis - Chronology
November 29, 1898 – Clive Staples Lewis was born in Belfast, Ireland
1902 – His dog, Jacksie, was run over by a car. Clive announced that he was now to be called "Jacksie" and would answer to nothing else. He later accepted Jack and was known by that name for the rest of his life.

September 1913 – Enrolled at Malvern College where he stayed until the following June. He began studying Wagner’s music, Norse mythology and the occult. At age 15 he became an atheist, rejecting his Christian upbringing.

1914-1916 – Studying privately under William T. Kirkpatrick he fell in love with Greek literature and mythology, anthropomorphic animals, ancient Scandinavian literature and Icelandic sagas.

April 26-September 1917 – Attended University College, Oxford under a scholarship. He left the college to enlist in the British Army, becoming an officer in the 3rd Battalion, Somerset Light Infantry.

April 15, 1919 – He is wounded on Mount Berenchon during the Battle of Arras and is discharged in December of that year.

February 1919 – “Death in Battle” was published in Reveille; it was Lewis’s first publication outside of school.

1919-1924 – Finished studies at University College receiving the highest marks in Greek and Latin Literature, Philosophy and Ancient History, and English.

1925-1954 – Taught as a fellow at Magdalen College, Oxford. He met and befriended J.R.R Tolkien here and both were part of the literary discussion group “The Inklings”.

1931 – Lewis became a Christian.

1938Out of the Silent Planet was published. It was the first of Lewis’s space trilogy which later included Perelandra (1943) and That Hideous Strength (1945).

1950The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe was published. It is the first of the seven Chronicles of Narnia books, but not the first chronologically (it is second to The Magician’s Nephew.)

1951-1956 – The rest of the Chronicles of Narnia books are published. Prince Caspian (1951), The Voyage of the ‘Dawn Treader’ (1952), The Silver Chair (1953), The Horse and His Boy (1954), The Magician’s Nephew (1955), The Last Battle (1956)

1955Surprised by Joy, Lewis’s autobiography was published.

March 1957 – Married Joy Gresham in her hospital bed. She had terminal bone cancer and died in 1960. Lewis continued raising her two sons after her death.

November 22, 1963 – Lewis died after suffering from various illnesses including a heart attack and kidney problems.
A List of Characters
Aslan - The king and god of Narnia. The noble lion sacrifices his life so that the Witch will spare Edmund. After beingaslan.girls.baynes.jpg resurrected the next morning, Aslan rises and defeats the White Witch once and for all. In the context of the book's Christian allegory, Aslan represents Christ.

The White Witch - This evil queen of Narnia places a spell on the land so that it is winter and never Christmas. The Witch is the "Emperor's hangman," as Mr. Beaver says, and she has the right to kill any Narnian traitor. She wields a wand that turns creatures and people to stone. The wand also produces the Turkish Delight that enslaves Edmund and makes him greedy. The Witch kills Aslan, and it is only after he rises from the dead that he defeats her. Like any malicious character, the Witch, an embodiment of evil, could represent Satan, or she may be a servant of Satan. "She calls herself the Queen of Narnia thought she has no right to be queen at all, and all the Fauns and Dryands and Naiads and Dwarfs and Animals—at least all the good ones—simply hate her."

Peter Pevensie - Peter is the oldest of the Pevensie children, and he is noble and courageous. He matures into a young man during his first few days in Narnia. He immediately proves himself after protecting Susan from a ferocious wolf. Aslan knights him, and eventually crowns him the High King of Narnia. During his reign he is known as King Peter the Magnificent.

edmund-and-queen.jpgSusan Pevensie - The second oldest of the Pevensie children, Susan is the beauty among the Pevensies. She is sweet and kind, and perhaps a little bland. Santa Claus gives her a horn to blow if she ever finds herself in a dangerous situation. When she becomes queen at Cair Paravel, she is known as Queen Susan the Gentle.
Edmund Pevensie - The third oldest Pevensie child, Edmund is a brat for most ofThe Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe. Edmund is spiteful and mean, and likes to tease his sister, Lucy. His greed for the enchanted Turkish Delight leads him to act as a traitor against his siblings. Edmund joins forces with the White Witch, but eventually sees the error of his ways and returns to the good side.
Lucy Pevensie - The youngest Pevensie is cheerful, kind, and brave. This mrtumnus_1096996929.nb.jpgcurious, happy-go-lucky girl is the first of the children to venture into Narnia. Later, she urges her siblings to search for her friend, Tumnus, when they find that the faun's home is ransacked. In the beginning, she is the protagonist, although Aslan fills that role later in the novel. We view much of the action through her optimistic eyes, as a foil to the skeptical eyes as Edmund. Santa Claus gives Lucy a cordial, which she uses to heal the wounded following the battle with the Witch's troops. She is known as Queen Lucy the Valiant.
Tumnus - Lucy meets Tumnus, a faun, on her first excursion into Narnia. He initially intends to kidnap her and bring her to the White Witch. Tumnus does not go through with it, and he spares her life. For his crime, the Witch ransacks his home and petrifies him. Later, Aslan rescues Tumnus from the spell. Kind, sensitive, and caring, Tumnus and Lucy become fast friends once it is settled that he is not going capture her. He also makes a mean cup of tea.

Professor Kirke - Professor Kirke is a slightly eccentric, elderly professor. He takes care of the Pevensie children so they can escape the air raids in London during World War II. Wise and open-minded, he helps Peter and Susan

external image Narnia+beavers+food.jpg
understand that Narnia may indeed exist.
Mr. Beaver - Mr. Beaver is Tumnus's friend, and he aids the Pevensie children in the search for the petrified faun. Mr. Beaver introduces the Pevensies to Santa Claus and ultimately brings them to the Stone Table and Aslan.
Mrs. Beaver - She is Mr. Beaver's wife. Mrs. Beaver is kindly, good-natured, motherly, and a good cook.
Dwarf - The dwarf is one of the Witch's evil henchman and is her right-hand man.Witchsdwarf.Narnia.jpg
Maugrim - Maugrim is a wolf and the chief of the Witch's Secret Police. Peter murders the evil wolf after Maugrim chases Susan up a tree.
Father Christmas - Father Christmas is also known as Santa Claus and he makes a cameo appearance in the land of Narnia. He explains that Christmas has arrived in Narnia and as a gift, gives special tools to each of children.
Creatures of Narnia
Faun – From Roman mythology, these creatures are place-spirits of the untamed woodland-faun-patrick-hiatt.jpgwoods.They resemble humans from the waist up (besides horns on their heads) and goats below. Mr. Tumnus is a Faun.

centaur.jpgCentaur – A race of half human half horse creatures from Greek mythology. Their upper body is that of a man with a horse’s withers attached at the torso.

Nymph – A female spirit from Greek mythology associated with a particular location or landform. They are often the target of Satyrs.

Dryad –From Greek mythology these are nymphs of oak trees who tend to be shy creatures.dover fairy and frog talking.jpg

Satyr – Male companions of the Greek God Pan, they travel through the woods and mountains. The looks much like Fauns but have human feet.

Ogre – A large humanoid monster from French folklore and fairy tales. They have large heads, lots of hair and a huge body. It is said they feast upon humans and are bad tempered.

Minotaur – Part man and part bull the Greeks pictured them with the head and tail of a bull and body of a man.


The Evacuation of Children during the Bombing of London
In September 1939 World War Two began; the British government expectedOperation_Pied_Piper.jpg that the Germans would bomb London and that causalities would be high. To reduce the number of deaths they evacuated children, teachers, the disabled and mothers of young children to the countryside. While the evacuations were voluntary,many people took advantage of the government’s assistance to move their children out of the cities.

Called "Operation Pied Piper," the first evacuations took place on September 1, 1939. Almost 3.75 million people were displaced, with 3.5 of those being moved in the first three days. Children would be assembled in school playgrounds wearing name tags, holding onto gas masks and a few belongings. The government recommended that children bring the following with them:
Boys: 2 undershirts, 2 pair boxers, pair of trousers, 2 pair socks, 6 handkerchiefs, pullover or jersey

Girls: Undershirt, pair of panties, 2 pair of stockings, 6
handkerchiefs, slip, blouse, cardigan.

Both: Overcoat, comb, 1 pair boots, towel, soap, facecloth, toothbrush, shoes, sandwiches, nuts, dry biscuits, apple

Children were issued special gas masks by the government that were different from adult versions. These masks were called "Mickey Mouse Masks." Once gathered the children were taken by train or carriage to a destination in Operation_Pied_Piper.kidsphoto.bombshelter.5.jpgthe country going or if they would be kept together with their family. Upon arrival in their new town they were sent to the village hall where the met a billeting officer (person in charge of finding homes). The host families would then choose which children to take in with the sicklier children being left for last... It was a frightening time as many did not know where they were

Those who stayed in the city found a new sound had entered their lives that of the air raid siren. In the beginning of The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe the Pevensie children meet an Air Raid Precaution Warden at the train station. Their main job was to patrol the streets during blackouts (during the war everyone in London had to keep all lights off or cover all windows and doors at night) to make sure no light was seen. If any light was visible they would yell “Put out that light!” or “Cover that window!”. No light visible from the sky to made it harder for the Germans to find 11 their bombing target. The Wardens also reported damage, assessed local medical needs, handed out gas masks and gave people pre-fabricated air raid shelters.
Operation_Pied_Piper.2.jpgWhile Lucy is away in Narnia visiting with Mr. Tumnus, the rest of the Pevensie children are digging to create their own air raid shelter. These shelters were half buried in the ground with dirt on top of them to help protect from falling bombs. They were made from six corrugated iron sheets bolted together with steel plates at either end, and measured 6’6” x 4’6”. The shelters were damp and dark and tended to flood so many people were reluctant to use them. Many Londoners did not have the extra money to spend on the shelters so the government gave them for free to the poor.

Not only was money short, but so were supplies and as such rationing was introduced. When the Pevensie children arrive at Professor Kirke’s home Mrs. Macready asks them for their ration books. Everyone, man, woman or child was given a book and then had to register with a grocery store. The grocery store was only given enough food to provide for those people on their list. When someone bought rationed food, the grocer would sign or put a sticker in the book to show that his week’s rations had been purchased. Butter, sugar, bacon, eggs, meat and tea were all rationed. Vegetables were not and citizens were encouraged to replace flowers in their gardens with veggies; posters told people to ‘Dig for Victory’. Clothes were rationed as well to allow manufacturers more time and effort spent on war goods. Rationing lasted for 15 years in Britain, not ending until midnight July 4,1954 nine years after the end of the war.

The Final BBC Broadcast of C.S. Lewis"Beyond Personality, The New Man," 21st March 1944

This is the only surviving audio of C.S. Lewis's broadcast talks. "The New Men" is the last episode in "Beyond Personality," the third series. It was broadcast on BBC radio on 21st March 1944.

The transcripts of all three series were published as Mere Christianity: http://j.mp/KAz3xy
C. S. Lewis' Final Broadcast, BBC, 1944

The Magician's Nephewby C. S. Lewis
"This is... a very important story because it shows how all the coming between our own world and the land of Narnia first began."
~ C. S. Lewis
The Magician's Nephew was the sixth book published in the The Chronicles of Narnia. It was originally published in 1955 by The Bodley Head, a publishing establishment in England. In more recent editions of The Chronicles of Narnia, the books have been re-ordered with The Magician's Nephew as the first book, because it comes first chronologically, and fans are divided as to which is the correct way to read the books. Reading this as the first book will tell the reader first of the creation of Narnia by Aslan, it takes place in Narnian-year 0 (zero), but Earth year 1900.

From The Kirkus Reviews (reviewed on September 1, 1955):
To all who have followed the adventures in C.S. Lewis' marvelous land of Narnia, this is a treat as it goes back to "grandfather's day" and tells how first contacts with Narnia were made. In London there was Digory, a boy who lived with a wicked uncle, and Polly, the friend with whom he goes exploring. At first their adventures bring near disaster for mad Uncle Andrew uses magic powers inherited from his grandmother to send Polly off to the Woods Between the Worlds. There Digory follows her and the two children meet Jadis, a which who accompanies them back to reality. In turn Jadis brings with her a peck of trouble for everyone concerned--including Uncle Andrew--until a chance fall into a pit transfers them all to Narnia, the singing land of Aslan the Lion, whose intelligence and love vanquishes all evil. Couched in Lewis' silvered prose, this is rich reading.


Journaling Guide for"The Magician's Nephew"
Chapter-by-chapter compass readings to keep your bearing straight...

The purpose of these "compass readings" is to guide your journaling, hence, your understanding, of this wonderful book. This journal becomes pocket compass to locate all of your observations upon having “portaled” into the world of Narnia as it is being created by C. S. Lewis. Be sure that you answer these questions in such a way that you can study from them.

Chapter One – “The Wrong Door”
1. Find four setting clues for this story (time period/ place)2. Name three reasons for Digory’s bad attitude about London3. Why did Digory think that his Uncle Andrew was mad?
Chapter Two – “Digory and His Uncle”
1. What do we know of Mrs. Lefay’s background?2. What were the promises Mrs. Lefay asked of Uncle Andrew?
Chapter 3 – “The Wood Between the Worlds”
1. With adjectives, describe the Wood Between the Worlds and how it made people feel.2. What are the similarities between the Wood and the tunnel.3. What is the difference between Uncle Andrew’s ideas about the rings vs. the “real” story of how the rings work?
Chapter 4 – “The Bell and the Hammer”
1. List four major events in this chapter that involve sight or sound (in order)
Chapter 5 – “The Deplorable Word”
Uncle Andrew

1. Explain the destruction of Charn2. List some similarities between Uncle Andrew and Jadis3. Define deplorable and tell what it means here as “the deplorable word”
Chapter 6 – “The Beginning of Uncle Andrew’s Troubles”
1. What new information do we learn about the rings?2. What were gains and losses for Jadis in Other Worlds (the Wood and London)?
Chapter 7 – “What Happened at the Front Door”
1. What new information do we learn about Digory’s mother?
Chapter 8 – “The Fight at the Lamp-post”
1. Give a description of the empty world2. List 10 events (in order) in the creation of this new world
Chapter 9 – “The Founding of Narnia”
1. List items of unusual growth in Narnia and tell how certain characters reacted
Chapter 10 – “The First Joke and Other Matters”
1. Explain a joke and this first one in Narnia.TheMagician'sNephew.jpgChapter 11 – “Digory and His Uncle are Both in Trouble”
1. What was the animals’ decision about Uncle Andrew?2. Who got new names and jobs?
Chapter 12 – “Strawberry’s Adventure”
1. List similarities between Aslan and Digory2. What was Digory’s Quest
Chapter 13 – “An Unexpected Meeting”
1. Name 3 reasons Digory considered the apple for himself.2. What was Mother’s advice and the Witch’s fatal mistake?
Chapter 14 – “The Planting of the Tree”
1. What was the heart’s desire and despair of Jadis?
Chapter 15 – “The End of this Story & the Beginning of All the Others”
1. What was Aslan’s warning and command?2. What was the ultimate fate of the apple?3. What happened to Uncle Andrew?
* portal = something that provides access to another place (to get in or get out)

The Magician’s Nephewby C.S. Lewis
FLCS English DepartmentMr. HennessyReading Schedule

Chapters Assigned
Reading Dates
Chapters 1-2
September 10-14
Chapters 3-4
September 17-21
Chapters 5-6
September 24-28
Chapters 7-8
October 1-5
Chapters 9-10
October 8-12
Chapters 11-12
October 15-19
Chapters 13-15
October 22-26

  • Guide Sheets completed during reading week [Journal Guides, Vocabulary and Spelling Terms, Character Description(s) ]
  • Journals due every Friday of reading week
  • Comprehension & Vocabulary Quiz every Friday
  • A 3-page Report will be assigned at the conclusion of the book

Chapter One - The Wrong Door
Chapter Two - Digory And His Uncle
Chapter Four - The Bell And The Hammer
Chapter Five - The Deplorable Word
Chapter Six - The Beginning Of Uncle Andrew's Troubles
Chapter Seven - Happened At The Front Door
Chapter Eight - The Fight At The Lamp-Post
Chapter Nine - The Founding Of Narnia
Chapter Ten - The First Joke And Other Matters
Chapter Eleven - Digory And His Uncle Are Both In Trouble
Chapter Twelve - Strawberry's Adventure
Chapter Thirteen - An Unexpected Meeting
Chapter Fourteen - The Planting Of The Tree
Chapter Fifteen - The End Of This Story And The Beginning Of All The Others
Classroom Video:250px-C.s.lewis3.JPG

C. S. Lewis, The Question of God, "Surprised By Joy"

C. S. Lewis, The Question of God, "School Days"

An Introduction to the Works of William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-on-Avon on April 23, 1564, of John Shakespeare, a glover and leather merchant, and Mary Arden, a landed social heiress. It is impossible to be ce
rtain the exact day on which he was born, but church records show that he was baptized o
n April 26, and three days was a customary amount of time to wait before baptizing a newborn. Shakespeare's date of death is conclusively known, however: it was April 23, 1616. He was 52 years old and had retired to Stratford three years before.

He probably attended the grammar school in Stratford, where he would have studied Latin and read classical literature. He did not go to university but at age 18 married Anne Hathaway, who was eight years his senior and pregnant at the time of the marriage. Their first daughter, Susanna, was born six months later, and in 1585 William and Anne had twins, Hamnet and Judith. Hamnet, Shakespeare's only son, died 11 years later, and Anne
Baptism Registry
outlived her husband, dying in 1623. Nothing is known of the period between the birth of the twins and Shakespeare's emergence as a playwright in London in the early 1590s, but unfounded stories have him stealing deer, joining a group of traveling players, becoming a schoolteacher, or serving as soldier in the Low Countries.

In 1594, having probably composed, among other plays, Richard III, The Comedy of Errors, and The Taming of the Shrew, he became an actor and playwright for the Lord Chamberlain's Men, which became the King's Men after James I's ascension in 1603. The company grew into England's finest, in no small part because of Shakespeare, who was its principal dramatist. It also had the finest actor of the day, Richard Burbage, and the best theater, the Globe, which globe.jpglocated on the Thames' south bank. Shakespeare stayed with the King's Men until his retirement and often acted in small parts.

By 1596, the company had performed the classic Shakespeare plays Romeo and Juliet, Richard II, and A Midsummer Night's Dream. That year, John Shakespeare was granted a coat of arms, a testament to his son's growing wealth and fame. In 1597, William Shakespeare bought a large house in Stratford. In 1599, after producing his great historical series, the first and second part of Henry IV and Henry V, he became a partner in the ownership of the Theatre.

The beginning of the 17th century saw the performance of the first of his great tragedies, Hamlet. The next play, The Merry Wives of Windsor, was written at the request of Queen Elizabeth I, who wanted to see another play that included the popular character Falstaff. During the next decade, Shakespeare produced such masterpieces as Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and The Tempest. In 1609, his sonnets, probably written during the 1590s, were published. The 154 sonnets are marked by the recurring themes of the mutability of beauty and the transcendent power of love and art.

shakes_montage.jpgShakespeare died in Stratford-on-Avon on April 23, 1616. Today, nearly 400 years later, his plays are performed and read more often and in more nations than ever before. In a million words written over 20 years, he captured the full range of human emotions and conflicts with a precision that remains sharp today. As his great contemporary the poet and dramatist Ben Jonson said, "He was not of an age, but for all time."

Finger Lakes Christian School

English Department

Mr. Hennessy

The Six Pillars of Character

(...as related to Shakespeare's plays...)



Build trust and credibility with integrity (consistency between beliefs, words and actions), honesty (truthfulness, sincerity and candor), promise-keeping, and loyalty (fidelity to family, friends, and country).


Treat others with respect; follow the Golden Rule • Be tolerant and accepting of differences • Use good manners, not bad language • Be considerate of the feelings of others • Don’t threaten, hit or hurt anyone • Deal peacefully with anger, insults, and disagreements.


Be accountable for your words, actions, and attitudes. Exercise self-control. Strive for excellence and self-improvement. Plan ahead. Set a good example for others. Be self-reliant, prudent, proactive, persistent, and hard-working.


Be consistent, open, and treat all people equitably. Consider all sides and make decisions on the facts without favoritism or prejudice. Play by the rules, avoid careless accusations, and don’t take undue advantage of others. Pursue justice and condemn injustice.


Be kind, compassionate, empathetic, charitable, forgiving, and grateful.


Obey laws in good faith. Do your share to improve the well-being of fellow citizens and the community. Protect the environment, volunteer, and participate in the processes of democracy by staying informed and voting.

Journal Questions - HAMLET

1. Does Shakespeare’s play “The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark” have a moralmessage?

1.a. If your father had died only a few months ago, how do you think you’d react to your mother remarrying? How would your feelings change if your mother married your father’s brother, your uncle? How would you treat your mother? How would you feel about your uncle/stepfather?

2. Is Hamlet governed by a moral or ethical code?

2.a. Polonius gives Laertes a great deal of "fatherly advice" about how to live his life. Look at this section and find advice you have heard from your own parents or mentors. How valuable is this advice? Have you used it? Have you been involved in any situation in which this advice was applicable?

3. Does Hamlet honor the Six Pillars in his actions toward Gertrude?

3.a.To what extent do parents have the right to "spy" or check up on their children? What circumstance might allow or prevent this? Who spies on Hamlet and why? What are the justifications for this?

4. Does Hamlet honor the Six Pillars in his actions toward Polonius?

4.a. Have you ever been the recipient of affection from someone whom you did not care about? How did you feel about this situation? Relate this situation to either Hamlet or Ophelia.

5. Does Hamlet honor the Six Pillars in his actions toward Ophelia?

6. Characterize yourself as a "thinker" or a "doer." In this respect, which character from the play are you most like? How would you like to be different or would you like to be different? Explain.

7. Several metaphors are evident in Hamlet's interactions with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Hamlet asks Guildenstern: "Will you play upon this pipe?" Explain this metaphor.

8. In Act III, scene ii, Hamlet refers to Rosencrantz as a sponge. Explain this metaphor.