A Passage to Indiaby E. M. Forster
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From a book review appearing in The Guardian on Friday, 20 June 1924:
The first duty of any reviewer is to welcome Mr. E. M. Forster's reappearance as a novelist and to express the hope that the general public as well as the critics will recognise his merits and their good fortune; the second is to congratulate him upon the tone and temper of his new novel. To speak of its "fairness" would convey the wrong impression, because that suggests a conscious virtue. This is the involuntary fairness of the man who sees.
We have had novels about India from the British point of view and from the native point of view, and in each case with sympathy for the other side; but the sympathy has been intended, and in this novel there is not the slightest suggestion of anything but a personal impression, with the prejudices and limitations of the writer frankly exposed. Mr. Forster, in fact, has reached the stage in his development as an artist when, in his own words about Miss Quested, he is "no longer examining life, but being examined by it." He has been examined by India, and this is his confession.

There can be no doubt about the principal faculties which have contributed to its quality: imagination and humour. It is imagination in the strictest sense of the world as the power of seeing and hearing internally, without any obligation to fancy - though Mr. Forster has fancy at his command to heighten the impression, as in his treatment of the echoes in the Marabar Caves. "Even the striking of a match starts a little worm coiling, which is too small to complete a circle but is eternally watchful." To speak of his characters as being "well drawn," would be crude; they draw themselves, and mainly in their conversation. More remarkable even than his vision is Mr. Forster's power of inner hearing; he seems incapable of allowing a person to speak out of character, and Dr. Aziz strikes one as less invented than overheard. Equally pure is Mr. Forster's humour. His people, British or native, are not satirised or caricatured or made the targets of wit; they are simply enjoyed.
The story is, essentially, that of the close contact of East and West in the persons of Dr. Aziz, a Moslem, assistant medical officers of the Chandrapore Hospital, and Mr. Fielding, principal of the College. In all the other characters the contact is governed by conventions - official or would-be sympathetic - but in them it is as close as blood itself allows. So far as affection is concerned they are friends, so that the interplay of East and West is along the very finest channels of human intercourse - suggesting the comparison of the blood and air vessels in the lungs; but the friendship is always at the mercy of the feelings which rise from the deeps of racial personality.

The action of the story is provided by outsiders; two travelling Englishwomen, one elderly, the mother of the city magistrate, and one, Miss Quested, comparatively young, who becomes for a time engaged to him. The one has a natural and the other a theoretical sympathy for the country and its people.
As the guests of Dr. Aziz they make an excursion to the Marabar Caves, where Miss Quested loses her head and accuses Aziz of having insulted her - a series of minor accidents lending plausibility to what was, in effect, an hallucination. Aziz is arrested, and East and West rally round their prejudices and conventions, though Fielding believes Aziz to be innocent, and breaks with his own order to support him.

At the trial, before a native magistrate, Miss Quested withdraws her accusations and Aziz is acquitted; but in the following turmoil Fielding, against his will, is true to his blood in sheltering Miss Quested, and he and Aziz drift apart. "Why can't we be friends now?" he says at the end. "It's what I want. It's what you want." But India answers: "No, not yet...No, not there."

Thus we are left with the feeling that the blending of races is a four-dimensional problem. In his presentation of the problem Mr. Forster leans, if anywhere, towards his own race in his acute sense of their difficulties, but not more than by the weight of blood; and, again, fairness is not the word for his sensitive presentation. It is something much less conscious; not so much a virtue as a fatality of his genius. Whether he presents Englishman or Moslem or Hindu or Eurasian he is no longer examining life, but being examined by it in the deeps of his personality as an artist.

About the Author
FORSTER, E(dward) M(organ) ([1 Jan.] 1879 - [7 June] 1970), was the only child of Edward Morgan Forster, architect, who died in 188o, and of Alice 'Lily' Whichelo (1855-1945).

The photograph shows Forster 1890, at the age of eleven.  Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/24
The photograph shows Forster 1890, at the age of eleven. Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/24
His boyhood was dominated by women, among them his influential great-aunt and benefactress Marianne Thornton, whose father had been a leading member of the 'Clapham Sect'; on her death in 1887 she left him £8,ooo in trust. His happiest childhood years (1883-93) were spent at Rooksnest, Stevenage, a house he evokes in Howards End. In 1893 he and his mother moved to Tonbridge, and Forster attended Tonbridge School, where he was deeply unhappy and developed a lasting dislike of public-school values.

In 1897 he went to King's College, Cambridge, where he found congenial friends; the atmosphere of free intellectual discussion, and a stress on the importance of personal relationships inspired partly by G. E. Moore was to have a profound influence on his work. In 1901 he was elected to the Apostles and largely through them was later drawn into closer contact with Bloomsbury.

A year of travel in Italy with his mother and a cruise to Greece followed, providing material for his
The photograph shows Forster as a young man in 1915.  Photographer: Edward Leigh, Cambridge  Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/319
The photograph shows Forster as a young man in 1915. Photographer: Edward Leigh, Cambridge Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/319
early novels, which satirize the attitudes of English tourists abroad, Baedeker in hand, clinging to English pensioni, and suspicions of anything foreign. On his return from Greece he began to write for the new Independent Review launched in 1903 by a group of Cambridge friends, led by G. M. Trevelyan; in 1904 it published his first short story 'The Story of a Panic.'

In 1905 he completed Where Angels Fear to Tread, which was published the same year, and spent some months in Germany as tutor to the children of the Countess von Arnim In 19o6, now established with his mother in Weybridge, he became tutor to Syed Ross Masood, a striking and colonial Indian Muslim patriot, for whom Forster developed an intense affection. The Longest Journe appeared in 1907, A Room with a View in 1908, and Howards End, which established Forster as a writer of importance, in 1910. In 1911 he published a collection of short stories, mostly pastoral and whimsical in tone and subject-matter, The Celestial Omnibus.

In 1912-13 he visited India for some months, meeting Masood in Aligarh and traveling with him. He worked for a while at the National Gallery then went to Alexandria in 1915 for the Red Cross; his Alexandria: A History and a Guide was published somewhat abortively in 1922 (almost the entire stock was burned) and reprinted in revised form in 1938. In Alexandria he met Cavafy whose works, on his return to Engl
The photograph, taken 1911, shows Forster together with Syed Ross Masood.  Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/305
The photograph, taken 1911, shows Forster together with Syed Ross Masood. Source: King's College, Cambridge. Ref. EMF/27/305
and in 1919, he helped to introduce; an essay on Cavafy appears in Pharos and Pharillon (1923).

In 1921-22 he revisited India, working as personal secretary for the maharajah of the native state of Dewas Senior for several months. The completion of A Passage to India (1922-4) which he had begun before the war, was overshadowed by the death of his closest Egyptian friend Mohammed, but when the novel appeared in June 1924 it was highly acclaimed. Forster's fears that this would be his last novel proved correct, and the remainder of his life was devoted to a wide range of literary activities; over many years he took a firm stand against censorship, involving himself in the work of PEN and the NCCL, of which he became the first president, campaigning in 1928 against the suppression of R. Hall's The Well of Loneliness, and appearing in 1960 as a witness for the defence in the trial of the publishers of Lady Chatterley's Lover.

In 1927 he delivered the Clark lectures at Cambridge printed the same year as Aspects of the Novel;
Forster spent his happiest childhood years (1883-93) at Rooksnest, Stevenage, England. Howards End Click here to read the free, unabridged electronic version of _Howards End_. refers to Rooksnest.
Forster spent his happiest childhood years (1883-93) at Rooksnest, Stevenage, England. Howards End Click here to read the free, unabridged electronic version of _Howards End_. refers to Rooksnest.
his tone in these was in his own words 'informal, indeed talkative', and they contain the celebrated comment, 'yes-oh dear yes-the novel tells a story.' Leavis, representing the new school of Cambridge criticism, found the lectures 'intellectually null', but they were a popular success, and King's offered him a 3-year-fellowship, and, in 1946, an honorary fellowship and a permanent home.

In 1928 The Eternal Moment, a volume of pre-1914 short stories, whimsical and dealing with the supernatural appeared. He wrote two biographies, Goldsworthy Lowes Dickenson (1934) and Marianne Thornton (1956). Abinger Harvest, essays named after the village in Surrey in which Forster inherited a house on 1924, appeared in 1936, Two Cheers for Democracy in 1951, The Hill of Devi, a portrait of India through letters and commentary, in 1953.
The round reading room of the British Museum in London.  Photographer: Frank Fischer  2001 © Frank Fischer
The round reading room of the British Museum in London. Photographer: Frank Fischer 2001 © Frank Fischer
Between 1949 and 1951 he worked with Eric Crozier on the libretto for Britten's opera Billy Budd. He spent his last year in King's College, and was awarded the OM in 1969, Maurice was followed by another posthumous publication, The Life to Come (1972), a collection of short stories, including the tragic story The Other Boat written 1957-8.

See biography by P.N. Furbank (2 vols, 1977-8); Selected Letters, ed. M. Lago and P.N. Furbank, 1983, 1985.
(Text from Drabble, Margaret. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. © Margaret Drabble and Oxford University Press 1985, 1995; cited here by permission of Oxford University Press.)

FULL TITLE · A Passage to India
AUTHOR · E.M. Forster
GENRE · Modernist novel; psychological novel
LANGUAGE · English
TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN · 1912–1924; India, England
PUBLISHER · Edward Arnold
NARRATOR · Forster uses an unnamed third-person narrator
POINT OF VIEW · The third-person narrator is omniscient, attuned both to the physical world and the inner states of the characters
TONE · Forster’s tone is often poetic and sometimes ironic or philosophical
TENSE · Immediate past
SETTING (TIME) · 1910s or 1920s
SETTING (PLACE) · India, specifically the cities of Chandrapore and Mau
MAJOR CONFLICT · Adela Quested accuses Dr. Aziz of attempting to sexually assault her in one of the Marabar Caves. Aziz suspects Fielding has plotted against him with the English.
RISING ACTION · Adela Quested and Mrs. Moore’s arrival in India; the women’s befriending of Aziz; Adela’s reluctant engagement to Ronny Heaslop; Ronny and the other Englishmen’s disapproval of the women’s interaction with Indians; Aziz’s organization of an outing to the Marabar Caves for his English friends; Adela’s and Mrs. Moore’s harrowing experiences in the caves; Adela’s public insinuation that Aziz assaulted her in the caves; the inflammation of racial tensions between the Indians and English in Chandrapore
CLIMAX · Aziz’s trial; Adela’s final admission that she is mistaken in her accusations and that Aziz is innocent; the courtroom’s eruption; Aziz’s release; the English community’s rejection of Adela
FALLING ACTION · Fielding’s conversations with Adela; Fielding and Aziz’s bickering over Aziz’s desire for reparations from Adela; Aziz’s assumption that Fielding has betrayed him and will marry Adela; Aziz’s increasingly anti-British sentiment; Fielding’s visit to Aziz with his new wife, Stella; Aziz’s befriending of Ralph and forgiveness of Fielding
THEMES · The difficulty of English-Indian friendship; the unity of all living things; the “muddle” of India; the negligence of British colonial government
MOTIFS · The echo; Eastern and Western architecture; Godbole’s song
SYMBOLS · The Marabar Caves; the green bird; the wasp; INDIA itself, as a muddle, a mystery
FORESHADOWING · Adela’s concern about breaking down during the trial; Fielding’s interest in Hinduism at the end of Part II.

The British Empire - English Colonialism"The Raj"

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Rudyard Kipling, "The White Man's Burden," 1899
British statesman Sir Cecil Rhodes in Rhodesia in 1896
British statesman Sir Cecil Rhodes in Rhodesia in 1896
Born in British India in 1865, Rudyard Kipling was educated in England before returning to India in 1882, where his father was a museum director and authority on Indian arts and crafts. Thus Kipling was thoroughly immersed in Indian culture: by 1890 he had published in English about 80 stories and ballads previously unknown outside India. As a result of financial misfortune, from 1892-96 he and his wife, the daughter of an American publisher, lived in Vermont, where he wrote the two Jungle Books. After returning to England in 1899, he published "The White Man's Burden," a response to the American take over of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War.

Read Kipling’s poem for examples of the following : duty, paternalism, racism, Social Darwinism.Use the Vocabulary of American Imperialism for definitions.

Take up the White Man's burden--Send forth the best ye breed--Go bind your sons to exileTo serve your captives' need;To wait in heavy harness,On fluttered folk and wild--Your new-caught, sullen peoples,Half-devil and half-child.
Take up the White Man's burden--
The Relief of Lucknow, 1857
The Relief of Lucknow, 1857
In patience to abide,To veil the threat of terrorAnd check the show of pride;By open speech and simple,An hundred times made plainTo seek another's profit,And work another's gain.

Take up the White Man's burden--The savage wars of peace--Fill full the mouth of Famine And bid the sickness cease; And when your goal is nearestThe end for others sought,
Watch sloth and heathen Folly
Bring all your hopes to nought.

Take up the White Man's burden--
No tawdry rule of kings,
But toil of serf and sweeper--
The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter,
The roads ye shall not tread,
Go mark them with your living,
And mark them with your dead.

Queen Victoria ruled over the largest empire on earth
Queen Victoria ruled over the largest empire on earth
Take up the White Man's burden--
And reap his old reward:
The blame of those ye better,
The hate of those ye guard--
The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light:-- "Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"
Take up the White Man's burden--
Ye dare not stoop to less--
Nor call too loud on Freedom
To cloke your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper,
By all ye leave or do,
The silent, sullen peoples
Shall weigh your gods and you.

Take up the White Man's burden--
Have done with childish days--
The lightly proferred laurel,
The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood
Through all the thankless years
Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,
The judgment of your peers!

This text is part of the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts for introductory level classes in modern European and World history. Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use of the Sourcebook. (c) Paul Halsall Aug 1997 halsall@murray.fordham.edu

The Life and Work of Mahatma Ghandi
“An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind.”Mahatma Gandhi

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Mahatma Gandhi biography

SYNOPSISBorn on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, India, Mahatma Gandhi studied law and came to advocate for the rights of Indians, both at home and in South Africa. Gandhi became a leader of India's independence movement, organizing boycotts against British institutions in peaceful forms of civil disobedience. He was killed by a fanatic in 1948.
SPIRITUAL AND POLITICAL LEADERIndian nationalist leader Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, more commonly known as Mahatma Gandhi, was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Kathiawar, India. He studied law in London, England, but in 1893 went to South Africa, where he spent 20 years opposing discriminatory legislation against Indians. As a pioneer of Satyagraha, or resistance through mass non-violent civil disobedience, he became one of the major political and spiritual leaders of his time. Satyagraha remains one of the most potent philosophies in freedom struggles throughout the world today.
FIGHT FOR INDIAN LIBERATIONIn 1914, Gandhi returned to India, where he supported the Home Rule movement, and became leader of the Indian National Congress, advocating a policy of non-violent non-co-operation to achieve independence. His goal was to help poor farmers and laborers protest oppressive taxation and discrimination. He struggled to alleviate poverty, liberate women and put an end to caste discrimination, with the ultimate objective being self-rule for India.
Following his civil disobedience campaign (1919-22), he was jailed for conspiracy (1922-24). In 1930, he led a landmark 320 km/200 mi march to the sea to collect salt in symbolic defiance of the government monopoly. On his release from prison (1931), he attended the London Round Table Conference on Indian constitutional reform. In 1946, he negotiated with the Cabinet Mission which recommended the new constitutional structure. After independence (1947), he tried to stop the Hindu-Muslim conflict in Bengal, a policy which led to his assassination in Delhi by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic.
DEATH AND LEGACYEven after his death, Gandhi's commitment to non-violence and his belief in simple living--making his own clothes, eating a vegetarian diet, and using fasts for self-purification as well as a means of protest -- have been a beacon of hope for oppressed and marginalized people throughout the world.

MLA Style Citation"Mahatma Gandhi." 2013. The Biography Channel website. Sep 14 2013, 11:38 http://www.biography.com/people/mahatma-gandhi-9305898.

Famous Quotations of Mahatma Ghandi - Video

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Click on box or link to view.

“Be the change that you wish to see in the world.”Mahatma Gandhi

The "Marabar Caves"
The three Barabar caves are called Sudhama, Karna and Lomasrishi caves.
The three Barabar caves are called Sudhama, Karna and Lomasrishi caves.

Excavated caves are spread across Indian hills. The travelling monks of various sects like Jains, Buddhists and Ajivikas used them to stay during the rainy season when they could not travel. The cave architecture or cave temples over a period of time became an art in themselves. We see some of the most evolved one at Ajanta and Ellora.

The three Barabar caves are called Sudhama, Karna and Lomasrishi caves. First and third are Chaitya halls and the second one is a dwelling unit. The roof and the walls of the caves are very well polished that is supposed to be similar to the polish found on Ashoka pillars.

Forster seems to have combined the Barabar and Nagarjuni Hills to create the Marabar caves.

"Aziz's lack of awareness is not limited to Festivals and celebrations; it expands to daily practices. Aziz volunteers to guide Mrs. Moore and Adela to the Marabar Caves despite his scarce knowledge of the Hindu caves. Indians of many religions (including Buddhism, Islam, Jainism, and Sikhism) have their respective caves to which they journey, especially during holy days. These visits are considered a great offering of dedication because the caves are not easily accessible. Pilgrimages are so common that an immense number of people already occupy the caves when Mrs. Moore and Adela enter them.

The doorway to the Lomas rishi cave is the only one that is carved. It has the ornamental features that provided the norm for the facades of the later rock cut caves.
The doorway to the Lomas rishi cave is the only one that is carved. It has the ornamental features that provided the norm for the facades of the later rock cut caves.

The active population within the caves causes both Mrs. Moore and Adela to become overwhelmed and claustrophobic. "Crammed with villagers and servants, the circular chamber began to smell. She [Mrs. Moore] lost Aziz and Adela in the dark, didn't know who touched her, couldn't breathe, and some vile naked thing struck her face and settled on her mouth like a pad. She tried to regain the entrance tunnel, but an influx of villagers swept her back" (Forster 162). The image Forster creates here is one of confusion and mass chaos. The putrid stench, stifling temperature, and disorienting blackness that surrounds the women is overwhelming. This phenomenon that Mrs. Moore encounters is explainable by the numbers who participate in religious pilgrimages. The Marabar Caves about which Aziz knows so little are based on the Jain Temples on the Barabar Hills, once considered a retreat for Jain monks.

Close up of Cave entrance at Barabar caves
Close up of Cave entrance at Barabar caves

The Geographical Presence in A Passage to India

E.M. Forster was apparently not one to write without first doing his research. Throughout A Passage to India, scenes are more easily pictured because of his investigated details. The real facts on India's geography clearly make Forster's passage through India much easier to visualize. Understanding that "Kawa-Dol" means "rocking stone," for example, paints a picture of the huge boulder with, "...the niches up the curve of the stone..." (Forster 253-254).

Although Forster uses poetic license in naming locations, his references to places inexternal image IndiaPatna.jpg very closely match India's true geography. The novel's main city, Chandrapore, is actually based on the Indian suburb Bankipore, part of the city of Patna in the northern region of Bihar. The invented name, however, is not so far fetched. The suffix pore actually means "place" in Hindi, and Chandrapore sounds a bit like Chandragputa, which was named for a ruler who once lived in Patna, the capital of India's Bihar state. Forster probably chose this city for its diverse representation of India: its culture, history, and nature are all noteworthy (Patna 1).

Forster does not keep the scene exclusively confined to Patna, though. He expresses the beauty and mystique of India through many other places in the book. Dilkusha, the setting of Aziz's victory dinner after winning his trial, is based on Kothi Dilkusha, famous for its botanical gardens. Ironically, although it is the setting for Aziz's victory, this site boasts a replica of a famous English country house (Kothi 1). Meanwhile, the town of Mau, not too far west of Chandrapore, is also visited. In A Passage to India Mau shares a similar terrain and lack of perfection with the actual town. Forster writes that in Mau, "...the floods were even worse [than in the rest of India], and the pale grey faces of lakes had appeared in the direction of the Asirgarh railway station" (Forster 331). But despite the climactic imperfections of the place, Forster still conveys the beauty and comfort that India can have, even in its less physically mystifying places by making them places for relaxation. For example, Aziz uses Mau, the setting of such dismal lakes, as a refreshing retreat from society once the trial finishes. He scolds Fielding, "Do not trouble me here at Mau is all I ask" (Forster 339). Yet Fielding finds him there and talks to him about their friendship. Aziz is uncomfortable with this confrontation because in Mau he is at ease and unprepared to defend himself. The town is an example of an Indian hill station, a retreat from Indian plains that offers a serene place of beauty to both tourists and natives (Hill 1). But Patna is not just defined by its surrounding hill stations.

Patna is known for its many Sikh Shrines and one particularly old stone mosque,
Naqshband, Jamia Masjid, Tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-Abidin, Pathar Masjid (stone mosque), Shah Hamdan mosque which was beautiful with lovely carvings. Non-Muslims are not allowed in
Naqshband, Jamia Masjid, Tomb of the mother of Zain-ul-Abidin, Pathar Masjid (stone mosque), Shah Hamdan mosque which was beautiful with lovely carvings. Non-Muslims are not allowed in
Pathar Ki Masjid, constructed by the Emperor Jehangir in 1621 (Warham 632). This historical mosque in Patna might have been the inspiration for Mrs. Moore and Aziz's meeting place in Forster's novel where Aziz scolds her, "Madam, this is a mosque, you have no right here at all; you should have taken off your shoes; this is a holy place..." (Forster 17). One must enter any Indian shrine or temple barefoot so as not to bring any filth from outside into the place of worship. Muslims, along with some Sikhs, require head coverings be worn in their places of worship, too (Petrova Interview).

In addition to its numerous places of worship, Patna claims a bank of the holiest river in India, the Ganges. The river is meaningful to Hindus, and named for the
Known as the holy river of Hinduism, the Ganges River stretches from the western Himalayans, through Northern India and empties into the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. Many worship it as the Hindu goddess Ganga.
Known as the holy river of Hinduism, the Ganges River stretches from the western Himalayans, through Northern India and empties into the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. Many worship it as the Hindu goddess Ganga.
goddess Ganga Devi . The Ganges runs between its origin (believed to be flowing directly from Shiva's hair, where the Goddess Ganga resides) in the Himalayas and outlet in the Bay of Bengal on the eastern coast. Although the Ganges has become an internationally identifiable landmark, especially for frequency of bathing and cremations, Aziz, as a Muslim, never seems too preoccupied with its presence in his daily life. external image Varanasi_Ganges_River_india_by_phototheo.jpgHowever, Masha Petrova, a graduate student whose studies emphasized religion in India, relates that the river "...is the lifeblood of the region for food, trade, travel, and spirituality" (Petrova interview). She points out that even though Muslims might dismiss the river, "The Muslims drink that same water and eat the crops from her [the Ganges'] fertile lands just as the Hindus do" (Petrova interview). The Ganges River has a tremendous impact on Indian culture, especially in Hindu-influenced cities such as Patna. Forster alludes to the Ganges during the Festival of Krishna, in Mau, later in the novel.

Hinduism is well contrasted by Aziz's Islamic faith. Aziz is unable to inform his foreign friends about area traditions on more than one occasion because of his lack
Brass sculpture of Hindu God - Lord Ganesha
Brass sculpture of Hindu God - Lord Ganesha
of knowledge about Hinduism. At the end of the novel, when the Muslim takes the son of the late Mrs. Moore out on the river, he is unsure of the Hindu proceedings at the Festival of Krishna. Although Aziz is aware this Hindu ritual is annually practiced, he knows little about it. As part of the festival, a float depicting the King passes by. Aziz misunderstands the parade yet "...persuading himself that he understood the wild procession..." he explains to Ralph, "His Highness is dead. I think we should go back at once" (Forster 350). Aziz is unable to inform Ralph about the traditional festivities because of his lack of knowledge of Hinduism. Sukhjender, a Sikh living in Lucknow, India explains that most Muslims in actuality would have understood more than Aziz.

Aziz's lack of awareness is not limited to Festivals and celebrations; it expands to daily practices. Aziz volunteers to guide Mrs. Moore and Adela to the Marabar Caves despite his scarce knowledge of the Hindu caves. Indians of many religions (including Buddhism, Islam, Jainism, and Sikhism) have their respective caves to which they journey, especially during holy days. These visits are considered a great offering of dedication because the caves are not easily accessible. Pilgrimages are so common that an immense number of people already occupy the caves when Mrs. Moore and Adela enter them.

The active population within the caves causes both Mrs. Moore and Adela to become
Haridwar To Rampura Phul, Punjab (Bathinda) Paidal Kawad Yatra
Haridwar To Rampura Phul, Punjab (Bathinda) Paidal Kawad Yatra
overwhelmed and claustrophobic. "Crammed with villagers and servants, the circular chamber began to smell. She [Mrs. Moore] lost Aziz and Adela in the dark, didn't know who touched her, couldn't breathe, and some vile naked thing struck her face and settled on her mouth like a pad. She tried to regain the entrance tunnel, but an influx of villagers swept her back" (Forster 162). The image Forster creates here is one of confusion and mass chaos. The putrid stench, stifling temperature, and disorienting blackness that surrounds the women is overwhelming. This phenomenon that Mrs. Moore encounters is explainable by the numbers who participate in religious pilgrimages. The Marabar Caves about which
Pilgrimage to Kedarnath
Pilgrimage to Kedarnath
Aziz knows so little are based on the Jain Temples on the Barabar Hills, once considered a retreat for Jain monks. Forster seems to have combined the Barabar and Nagarjuni Hills to create the Marabar caves.
The journey from Patna to Barabar, however, is much greater than the 20-mile endeavor Aziz, Adela, and Mrs. Moore must endure. In actuality, a traveler must first arrive in Gaya, a city 100 kilometers south of Patna, that is the central location for Hindus making temple pilgrimages. Consequently trains and rickshaws are easily accessible from Gaya to the nearest stop to the Marabar Caves (Mills 323). The last five kilometers of the trip is an isolated path, which parallels Forster's description of the train and elephant journey, "Having wandered off into the plain for a mile, the train slowed up against an elephant" (Forster 152).

Via the elephant, Aziz and company eventually arrive at a group of Buddhist Chaityaexternal image India_2684.jpg caves, but these are not the only type of caves. Also, Jain caves are known for their many details and sense of balance. The caves themselves are underground, and all were apparently carved from the top to the bottom in order to make the actual construction easier (Caves 1). The insides of the four caves on Barabar hill are inscribed with Ashokan writing, and are thus accredited to the Ajivikas , whose founder, Makkhali Gosala, was a contemporary of Buddha.
In addition to the Jain caves, Forster includes Muslim shrines in his novel. In Mau for example, "...there are two shrines to him [a young Mohammedan saint] to-day-that of the Head above, and that of the Body below-and they are worshipped by the few Mohammedans who live near, and by Hindus also" (Forster 332). Yet despite these religious references, a broader range of religious factions is present in India than Forster reveals. The country contains followers of Parsi, Christianity, and Zoroastrian, none of which are mentioned in the novel (Petrova interview). Jains and Sikhs, who are barely referred to, are both prominent in Bihar. Neither of these groups was given enough attention in the novel given their ubiquitous presence in India's actual geography.

Although Forster's preparatory research for this novel is clearly evident, so too are his shortcomings. Despite the numerous places Forster's characters visit, they
The Kapaleeshwarar Temple is considered to be one of most sacred Hindu temples in Southern India. The forty metre tower called a gopuram is decorated with masses of stucco figures.
The Kapaleeshwarar Temple is considered to be one of most sacred Hindu temples in Southern India. The forty metre tower called a gopuram is decorated with masses of stucco figures.
explore a relatively small area and consequently never receive exposure to the differing customs that exist in other regions. The characters remain in northeastern India and thus never experience the sometimes vastly different culture of other regions. For example, Hindus in southern India do not practice Purdah as devoutly as Hindus in the north because southern women never had to fear Muslim invaders as those from the north did. But the reader does not discover such regional difference because Forster never explores anywhere outside of Bihar. Nor does he express the religious connection that seems inherent in every aspect of Indian life. With a more comprehensive explanation of religious ties to his character's dwellings Forster could have enhanced the reading experience of A Passage to India.

Although Forster's tour of India does not provide a complete view of the Indian culture, his personal experiences in the country clearly impact the novel and the external image trip_image_2426_126SLIDESHOW_southern-india.jpgreader. Through the faiths of the various characters many places of religious importance are explored. The significance of the Ganges River, the sacredness of caves, and the benefits of hill stations are all expressed. But maybe our inability to grasp fully the Indian culture, despite the above mention places that the novel explores, illustrates the novel's point about culture: a culture cannot truly be comprehended simply by a journey or study of it, the understanding requires something deeper.

Adapted from:
"The Geographical Presence in A Passage to India"

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQkf9y073_Ktl9BT6iVxQZMAURTlOWhVxjqfg3yRQDaWg-z7G7P

Chapter QuestionsA Passage To India
Answer each question with the appropriate short response.

Part 1: Chapter 1 | Part 1: Chapter 2
1. A Passage to India is set in Chandrapore, India on the banks of the Ganges River. How does Forster characterize Chandrapore in comparison to the “European” inhabited region inland?2. Dr. Aziz has three children. Who do they live with?3. Dr. Aziz receives a message to go to the bungalow of Major Callendar. On his way, he gets delayed because .4. When Dr. Aziz runs into Mrs. Moore in the mosque he _.5. Why does Mrs. Moore come to India?6. After talking to Mrs. Moore and discussing Mr. Callendar, Dr. Aziz decides that she is

Part 1: Chapter 3 | Part 1: Chapter 4
1. Adela Quested has come to India to see Ronny Heaslop, whom she is expected to marry. When she says she wants to see the "real India," what does Ronny do?2. Mrs. Moore tells Ronny Heaslop about her encounter with Dr. Aziz in the mosque. Which of the following are true?3. After Ronny Heaslop and Mrs. Moore talk about Dr. Aziz,
4. Nawab Bahadur, a generous and wealthy leader in the Muslim community, discusses the invitation to the Bridge Party with Mahmoud Ali and others. Mahmoud Ali is
5. In regard to the Bridge Party, Nawab Bahudar
6. What does Nawab Bahudar do in response to the Bridge Party invitation?Part 1: Chapter 5 | Part 1: Chapter 6
1. At the Bridge Party, the Anglo-Indians discuss a play that was put on by members of the club. What is the name of the play?2. Who says to Mrs. Moore, "You're superior to them, anyway. Don't forget that. You're superior to everyone in India except one or two of the Ranis, and they're on an equality"?3. Cyril Fielding, the principal at the college, visits with Mrs. Moore and Adela Quested and invites them to tea. Why?4. Why is Mr. Callendar upset at Dr. Aziz at the Bridge Party?5. Why does Dr. Aziz borrow Hamidullah's horse?6. When Dr. Aziz returns home, he finds the invitation from Cyril Fielding to tea. He is .Part 1: Chapter 7 | Part 1: Chapter 8
1. Which of the following is not true about Cyril Fielding?2. Dr. Aziz is glad that Adela Quested is because it allows him to enjoy her company.3. Why does Dr. Aziz change his invitation from his house to Marabar Caves?4. Adela Quested had known Ronny Heaslop well in England and had come to India to visit him before deciding to be his wife. At the beginning of Chapter 8, how does Adela feel about Ronny?5. Nawab Bahadur offers Adela Quested and Ronny Heaslop a spin in his new car. What happens?6. When Ronny Heaslop and Adela Quested return from their trip in the car, they are _.Part 1: Chapter 9 | Part 1: Chapter 10
1. Why does Dr. Aziz want to go to Calcutta?2. How does Cyril Fielding shock Dr. Aziz and his friends?3. Why does Cyril Fielding say that he is in India?4. Who points out there are well-qualified Indians for jobs in India?5. What is the weather like in India?6. In what month is Chapter 10 set?Part 1: Chapter 11 | Part 2: Chapter 12
1. What controversial object does Dr. Aziz show Cyril Fielding when Fielding visits him at his hovel?2. What is part of purdah?3. When Dr. Aziz asks Cyril Fielding why he isn't married, what does Fielding say?4. Who says, "I travel light"?5. In the circular chamber, if a match is lit, it becomes apparent that the interior walls .6. What is described in Chapter 12?Part 2: Chapter 13 | Part 2: Chapter 14
1. Who is invited to the caves?2. When does the party plan to leave to go to the caves?3. Who misses the train on the way to the caves?4. What is served on the train?5. Who says, "nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing, and that was Akbar's mistake."6. What does Mrs. Moore hear in the cave?Part 2: Chapter 15
1. Adela Quested is thinking of the wedding as she is climbing near the caves. What are her thoughts on the wedding?2. What does Dr. Aziz say when Adela Quested asks if he is married?3. How does Adela Quested offend Dr. Aziz before they enter the caves?4. What does Dr. Aziz do in response to being offended by Adela Quested outside the caves?5. How does Adela react in response to offending Aziz?6. What does Adela Quested do after Dr. Aziz goes into the cave?Part 2: Chapter 16
1. What does Dr. Aziz see when he first comes out of the cave?2. How does Dr. Aziz respond when Adela Quested cannot be found after he leaves the caves?3. What does Dr. Aziz find and pick up that belongs to Adela Quested after leaving the caves?4. Who shows up near the caves in a car?5. Who is waiting for Dr. Aziz, Cyril Fielding, and the others when they return to Chandrapore?6. Who escorts Mrs. Moore off the train?Part 2: Chapter 17
1. Why is Dr. Aziz arrested?2. Who questions the allegations and insists on talking to Adela?3. Who already has decided that Aziz is definitely guilty?4. What does Mr. Turton expect Cyril Fielding to do?5. Who is the Inspector of Police?6. Who wants to know the facts about the case in Part 2, Chapter 17?Part 2: Chapter 18
1. Who is the district superintendent of police?2. What was in Dr. Aziz's pocket when the police searched him?3. From whom is the letter that Dr. Aziz has in his possession when arrested?4. Why does Cyril Fielding want to talk to Adela Quested after Dr. Aziz's arrest?5. Who denies Cyril Fielding a visit with Adela Quested?6. Who is the city magistrate?Part 2: Chapter 19
1. Who is the leading barrister of Chandrapore with a Cambridge degree?2. Who is the Calcutta barrister, who has a good reputation but is notoriously anti-British?3. Hamidullah is surprised that
is taking Dr, Aziz's side against his own people.
4. Who comes to visit Cyril Fielding at the school?5. What does Cyril Fielding think of Adela Quested's accusations?6. Who tells Cyril Fielding, "you deserted me"?Part 2: Chapter 20
1. How do the women start treating Adela Quested after she accuses Dr. Aziz of attacking her?2. How do people react to Cyril Fielding asking about Adela Quested's health?3. Who says he blames himself for the incident with Adela Quested?4. What story does Major Callendar tell about Dr. Aziz?5. Who says, "I believe Dr. Aziz to be innocent"?6. Who resigns from the club over the case?Part 2: Chapter 21
1. In Chapter 21, what holiday is being celebrated in the city?2. Who is not one of the people that Cyril Fielding meets with regarding Dr. Aziz's situation?3. Why does Cyril Fielding go into the city in Chapter 21?4. What best characterizes the celebration of the holiday occurring at the same time that Fielding travels into the city?5. What do the lawyers and Cyril Fielding decide to do regarding Aziz's case?6. How is Adela's situation/health as the trial approaches?
Part 2: Chapter 22
1. With what are Nancy Derek and Mrs. McBryde helping Adela Quested?2. What does Adela Quested say started the echo?3. How does Adela Quested say she tried to stop the attack?4. Where is Adela Quested staying after the attack when she is visiting with Nancy Derek and Mrs. McBryde?5. Who says, "I shall attend your marriage, but not your trial. Then I shall go to England."6. Why does Adela Quested say she wants to drop the case?
Part 2: Chapter 23

1. Who invites Mrs. Moore to sail in her own cabin?2. Where is Mrs. Moore sailing?3. Which of the following is Mrs. Moore not excited to be missing?4. To what does Mrs. Moore attribute her spiritual crisis?5. Why didn't Mrs. Moore defend Adela Quested?6. To what is Mrs. Moore looking forward?
Part 2: Chapter 24
1. In Chapter 24, where is Adela Quested staying?2. Who opens the court case with "everyone knows the man's guilty"?3. To whom is the quote, "even when the lady is so much uglier than the gentleman" referring?4. Who is the magistrate in charge at the trial?5. Who says, "I'm afraid I have made a mistake"?6. Who says "The prisoner is released without one stain on his character; the question of costs will be decided elsewhere"?Part 2: Chapter 25
1. Who abandons Adela Quested after the trial?2. Who picks up Adela immediately after the trial?3. Who pulls the carriage in which Adela is riding away from the trial?4. Who wants to attack the collector and the chief of police?5. Who insists that violence against the British will not serve anyone's best interests?6. There had been a rumor that was being abused at the hospital.
Part 2: Chapter 26
1. With what does Adela Quested want Cyril Fielding to help her?2. What do Adela Quested and Cyril Fielding conclude might have been the reason for her thinking Dr. Aziz attacked her?3. When did Adela Quested first start feeling ill?4. When Adela Quested asks Cyril Fielding what Dr. Aziz thinks of her, what does Fielding say?5. Which of the following statements is correct?6. What does Ronny Heaslop tell Hamidullah and Cyril Fielding when he visits them after Mrs. Moore has left the country?
Part 2: Chapter 27
1. Where does Chapter 27 take place?2. What do Cyril Fielding and Dr. Aziz discuss during their celebration of the results of the trial?3. What does Cyril Fielding find out from Dr. Aziz regarding Mrs. Moore?4. Who does Dr. Aziz want to ask before he apologizes to Adela Quested?5. Who reminds Dr. Aziz that Adela Quested behaved decently whereas Mrs. Moore did nothing for him?6. How does Dr. Aziz react when Cyril Fielding tells him Mrs. Moore is dead?
Part 2: Chapter 28
1. What happened to Mrs. Moore soon after the ship departed?2. Who helps Mrs. Moore on the ship?3. What is the rumor going around Chandrapore as Mrs. Moore sails back to England?4. Where does Adela Quested stay while Mrs. Moore travels back to England?5. Why can't Adela Quested leave Chandrapore?6. How do people respond to the rumor that an Englishman killed his own mother?
Part 2: Chapter 29
1. Who comes to visit and praise Cyril Fielding for his handling of the episode?2. To whom does Adela Quested write a letter?3. Where are Ronny Heaslop and Adela Quested being sent after the trial is over and the charges have been dropped?4. What happens to Ronny Heaslop and Adela Quested's relationship before Adela leaves for England?5. How do Cyril Fielding and Adela Quested part, as she heads back to England?6. Adela Quested intends to look up
when she gets back to England.

Part 2: Chapter 30
1. Aziz wants to get away from _ after the trial.2. What does Dr. Aziz do regarding Adela Quested?3. Who tries to blackmail Adela Quested?4. What does the person who is trying to blackmail Adela Quested tell her?5. What does Adela Quested do to the person trying to blackmail her?6. What happens regarding the rumor of Adela and Fielding?
Part 2: Chapter 31
1. Who is having an affair?2. Who files for divorce?3. Why is Cyril Fielding being sent away in Chapter 31?4. Where is Fielding being sent in Chapter 31?5. Who thinks Cyril Fielding and Adela Quested are marrying?6. What does Dr. Aziz think will happen if Cyril Fielding and Adela Quested marry?
Part 2: Chapter 32
1. Why is Cyril Fielding traveling?2. What is Cyril Fielding's current occupation in Chapter 32?3. Where is not one of the places that Cyril Fielding travels?4. What does Cyril Fielding send to his friends in Part 2, Chapter 32?5. To what friends does Cyril Fielding send mail?6. How does Cyril Fielding feel about his Indian friends?
Part 3: Chapter 33
1. Where is Mau?2. In what event is Professor Godbole participating in Mau?3. What is the theme of the religious ceremony taking place in Mau?4. With what religion is Professor Godbole affiliated?5. With what religion is Mrs. Moore affiliated?6. What does Professor Godbole decide is his duty?
Part 3: Chapter 34
1. In Chapter 34, where is Dr. Aziz?2. For whom does Dr. Aziz work?3. Where are Aziz's children now that he has moved away from Chandrapore?4. Who does Dr. Aziz think Cyril Fielding has married, leading him not to open letters from Fielding?5. Why is Fielding in Mau?6. Who has traveled with Cyril Fielding to Mau?
Part 3: Chapter 35
1. With whom does Dr. Aziz go on a walk?2. Into whom does Dr. Aziz run on his walk?3. Who was stung by a bee?4. Who does Aziz find out that Cyril Fielding married when he meets up with him in Mau?5. Why hasn't Cyril Fielding taken out the boats?6. Why is Cyril Fielding mad at Dr. Aziz when he runs into him on the walk?
Part 3: Chapter 36
1. What does Aziz take to the guest house?2. On his walk to the guest house, Dr. Aziz notices that everyone is out in the boats; what does he do?3. Who are the letters from that Dr. Aziz finds?4. Why does Dr. Aziz change his attitude toward Ralph Moore?5. What do Dr. Aziz and Ralph Moore take to Cyril Fielding on the lake?6. Which of the following characters were in the boats when they capsized?
Part 3: Chapter 37
1. Which of the following events happens, bringing Cyril Fielding and Dr. Aziz back together as friends?2. As friends, where do Cyril Fielding and Dr. Aziz go to discuss the politics of India?3. Dr. Aziz wants the British to
4. Who says if the British don't leave in his lifetime, they will leave in his children's?5. To whom does Aziz write in Chapter 37?6. What does Dr. Aziz's letter do at the end of the novel?

The Old Man And The Seaby Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea is a magnificent story. At one level it is the tale of a man and a fish, at another, a story of man versus nature, at yet another, the story of the culture of manhood, courage, bravery in the face of existence, and at yet another a history of what life was like when individuals were more the central actors on the human stage and not groups or organizations.
Hemingway celebrates the courage and raw guts of this old man, even recounting a time in Casablanca when he had spent an entire day in an arm wrestling match with a much larger man in a seaside tavern. Hemingway celebrates a concept of humans as beings who go it alone, fierce, brave, courageous without even thinking about it, oozing strength from the nature of the best of the species.

The story is told with incredible economy of words and description, yet nothing is sacrificed which drives home the power and inner strength of this man, who just takes it as what he does, what it is to be a serious fisherman.

Hemingway’s world is not my world. I am no Santiago, no macho man. And the culture of today has little place left for the radical individual whom Hemingway celebrates and Santiago portrays. Yet the power of Hemingway’s telling is such that I couldn't help but be on Santiago’s side, to admire him, to ache with his loss in the end to forces greater than he.

There is a side tale as well. This great individual, the man who stands alone, is not alone completely by choice. He has developed a friendship, a working relationship, a love with a young boy who began fishing with him when the boy was only five. Now the boy has moved on to another boat, a more successful one, at his parents’ behest, but he pines to work with Santiago, and when the battle with the great fish has been engaged, Santiago pleads over and over and over: “I wish the boy were here.”boy.jpg

Like many readers who might come upon this novel today, I live a life of citified ease and comfort. A life far removed from harsh confrontations with nature. But Hemingway forces me to remember and acknowledge the individual, the struggle for the most basic existence, the battle with nature for survival itself. But most importantly he makes one acknowledge the importance of the individual and the magnificence of courage, skill, art and endurance.

From a book review by Bob Corbett, January 2006

Gregorio Fuentes: The Inspiration for the Character of Santiagoexternal image 4462201681_30ef703636_b.jpg

Gregorio Fuentes, the inspiration for the character of Santiago, was the captain of Hemingway's boat, "Pilar," during the years that Hemingway lived in Cuba. The two developed a strong friendship while Fuentes was Hemingway's captain and cook for nearly 30 years. They met in 1928.

Fuentes was born in the Canary Islands in 1897; when his father died during their journey to Cuba, Fuentes was taken in by other immigrants at the age of six. He died in 2002 at the age of 104 in the house he had always lived in while preparing to go to church.

About The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea was published 1952 after the bleakest ten years in Hemingway's literary career. His last major work, Across the River and into the Trees, was condemned as unintentional self-parody, and people began to think that Hemingway had exhausted his store of ideas.
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJN8SG5ArNdAajW2IeOh_FQ6SZuWTixZ278ZwuwoBvtM_AEVmI7QSantiago's story was originally conceived as part of a larger work, including material that later appeared in Islands in the Stream. This larger work, which Hemingway referred to as "The Sea Book," was proving difficult, and when Hemingway received positive reviews of the Santiago story, known then as "The Sea in Being," he decided to allow it to be published independently. He wrote to publisher Charles Scribner in October 1951, "This is the prose that I have been working for all my life that should read easily and simply and seem short and yet have all the dimensions of the visible world and the world of man's spirit. It is as good prose as I can write as of now."
The Old Man and the Sea, published in its entirety in one edition of Life magazine, was an instant success. external image Hemingway_at_his_writing_desk..jpgIn two days the September 1st edition of Life sold 5,300,000 copies and the book version sold 153,000. The novella soared to the top of the best-seller list and remained there for six months. At first, critical reception was warm. Many hailed it as Hemingway's best work, and no less than William Faulkner said, "Time may show it to be the best single piece of any of us, I mean his and my contemporaries." Others, however, complained of artificiality in the characterization and excess sentimentality. Despite these detractors, The Old Man and the Sea was awarded the 1953 Pulitizer Prize and American Academy of Arts and Letters' Award of Merit Medal for the Novel and played a significant role in Hemingway's selection for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.
For the first fifteen or so years after its publication, critical response remained largely positive. Since the mid-60's, however, the work has received sustained attacks from realist critics who decry the novella's unrealistic or simply incorrect elements, e.g. the alleged eight rows of teeth in the mako's mouth or the position of the star Riegel. While The Old Man and the Sea is popularly beloved and assigned reading for students in the US and around the world, critical opinion places it among Hemingway's less significant works.
ernest-hemingway4.jpgKEY FACTSThe Old Man And The Sea by Ernest Hemingway
FULL TITLE · The Old Man and the Sea

AUTHOR · Ernest Hemingway

TYPE OF WORK · Novella

GENRE · Parable; tragedy

LANGUAGE · English


PUBLISHER · Scribner’s

NARRATOR · The novella is narrated by an anonymous narrator.

POINT OF VIEW · Sometimes the narrator describes the characters and events objectively, that is, as they external image Viejo_Mar_002.jpgwould appear to an outside observer. However, the narrator frequently provides details about Santiago’s inner thoughts and dreams.

TONE · Despite the narrator’s journalistic, matter-of-fact tone, his reverence for Santiago and his struggle is apparent. The text affirms its hero to a degree unusual even for Hemingway.

TENSE · Past

SETTING (TIME) · Late 1940s

SETTING (PLACE) · A small fishing village near Havana, Cuba; the waters of the Gulf of Mexico


external image 6bf4ea243d6dafdaaeaee6e8cfa207fb.jpgMAJOR CONFLICT · For three days, Santiago struggles against the greatest fish of his long career.

RISING ACTION · After eighty-four successive days without catching a fish, Santiago promises his former assistant, Manolin, that he will go “far out” into the ocean. The marlin takes the bait, but Santiago is unable to reel him in, which leads to a three-day struggle between the fisherman and the fish.

CLIMAX · The marlin circles the skiff while Santiago slowly reels him in. Santiago nearly passes out from exhaustion but gathers enough strength to harpoon the marlin through the heart, causing him to lurch in an almost sexual climax of vitality before dying.

FALLING ACTION · Santiago sails back to shore with the marlin tied to his boat. Sharks follow the marlin’s trail of blood and destroy it. Santiago arrives home toting only the fish’s skeletal carcass. The village fishermen respect their formerly ridiculed peer, and Manolin pledges to return to fishing with Santiago. Santiago falls into a deep sleep and dreams of lions.

THEMES · The honor in struggle, defeat, and death; pride as the source of greatness and determination

MOTIFS · Crucifixion imagery; life from death; the lions on the beach

SYMBOLS · The marlin; the shovel-nosed sharks

FORESHADOWING · Santiago’s insistence that he will sail out farther than ever before foreshadows his destruction; because the marlin is linked to Santiago, the marlin’s death foreshadows Santiago’s own destruction by the sharks.
Character ListSantiago
Santiago is the protagonist of the novella. He is an old fisherman in Cuba who, at the beginning of external image old-man-and-the-sea.jpgthe book, has not caught anything for eighty-four days. The novella follows Santiago's quest for the great catch that will save his career. Santiago endures a great struggle with a uncommonly large and noble marlin only to lose the fish to rapacious sharks on his way back to land. Despite this loss, Santiago ends the novel with his spirit undefeated. Depending on your reading of the novel, Santiago represents Hemingway himself, searching for his next great book; an Everyman, heroic in the face of human tragedy; or the Oedipal male unconscious trying to slay his father, the marlin, in order to sexually possess his mother, the sea.Manolin
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRfkYM0FdT4pAcJdfB4hP86D3Wvuj4z8ak028mxct1d4ZjYbFb8Manolin is Santiago's only friend and companion. Santiago taught Manolin to fish, and the boy used to go out to sea with the old man until his parents objected to Santiago's bad luck. Manolin still helps Santiago pull in his boat in the evenings and provides the old man with food and bait when he needs it. Manolin is the reader's surrogate in the novel, appreciating Santiago's heroic spirit and skill despite his outward lack of success.
The Marlinexternal image old-man-sea.jpg
Although he does not speak and we do not have access to his thoughts, the marlin is certainly an important character in the novella. The marlin is the fish Santiago spends the majority of the novel tracking, killing, and attempting to bring to shore. The marlin is larger and more spirited than any Santiago has ever seen. Santiago idealizes the marlin, ascribing to it traits of great nobility, a fish to which he must prove his own nobility if he is to be worthy to catch it. Again, depending on your reading, the marlin can represent the great book Hemingway is trying to write, the threatened father of Santiago's Oedipus, or merely the dramatic foil to Santiago's heroism.
The Sea
external image old-man-and-the-sea1.jpg%3Fw%3D750As its title suggests, the sea is a central character in the novella. Most of the story takes place on the sea, and Santiago is constantly identified with it and its creatures; his sea-colored eyes reflect both the sea's tranquility and power, and its inhabitants are his brothers. Santiago refers to the sea as a woman, and the sea seems to represent the feminine complement to Santiago's masculinity. The sea might also be seen as the unconscious from which creative ideas are drawn.


HEMINGWAY CODE: Hemingway's protagonists are usually "Hemingway Code Heroes," i.e., figures who try to follow a hyper-masculine moral code and make sense of the world through those beliefs. Hemingway himself defined the
Ernest Hemingway deep sea fishing in Florida.Hemingway Collection/ JFK Library, Boston
Ernest Hemingway deep sea fishing in Florida.Hemingway Collection/ JFK Library, Boston
Code Hero as
"a man who lives correctly, following the ideals of honor, courage and endurance in a world that is sometimes chaotic, often stressful, and always painful." This code typically involves several traits for the Code Hero:

I. Measuring himself against the difficulties life throws in his way, realizing that we will all lose ultimately because we are mortals, but playing the game honestly and passionately in spite of that knowledge.

II. Facing death with dignity, enduring physical and emotional pain in silence.

III. Never showing emotions.

IV. Maintaining free-will and individualism, never weakly allowing commitment to a single woman or social convention to prevent adventure, travel, and acts of bravery.

V. Being completely honest, keeping one's word or promise.

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQxsqZ6nHf1Sr22e_qB8dvGYC_XV-As_SLvDCFJGXK-NohfqdKySwVI. Being courageous and brave, daring to travel and have "beautiful adventures," as Hemingway would phrase it.

VII. Admitting the truth of Nada (Spanish, "nothing"), i.e., that no external source outside of oneself can provide meaning or purpose. This existential awareness also involves facing death without hope of an afterlife, which the Hemingway Code Hero considers more brave than "cowering" behind false religious hopes.

The Hemingway Code Hero typically has some sort of physical or psychological wound symbolizing his tragic flaw or the weaknesses of his character, which must be overcome before he can prove his manhood (or re-prove it, since the struggle to be honest and brave is a continual one). Also, many Hemingway Code Heroes suffer from a fear of the dark, which represents the transience or meaninglessness of life in the face of eventual and permanent death.
external image 400000000000000030710_s4.jpg

Book Of A Lifetime: The Death of Ivan Ilyich, By Leo Tolstoy

by David Guterson, The Independent, 14 October 2011

The subject matter, it turned out, wasn't complicated, and neither was the prose. Ivan Ilyich, a judge, married, with two children, dies at the age of 45 after much suffering, reflection, and self-recrimination, and after considerable indictment by Tolstoy.

Ivan Ilyich is self-satisfied, opportunistic, shallow, grasping, dull, cold - in short, despicable - and Tolstoy presents him with no stylistic flourishes. In stern, spare, ironic tones, he prompts us to look closely and in condemnation at this man, and then, gradually and with gathering force, he induces not just our sympathy but our identification with him.
external image ilyich.jpg
The irony is established at the outset. Ivan Ilyich's colleagues, on hearing of his death, begin immediately to think "of what effect it would have on their own transfers and promotions or those of their acquaintances".

Soon they're jockeying to prevent its formalities from detaining them from a scheduled game of whist. Everywhere is vacuousness and vapidity, everywhere the illusions and entertainments that get us from here to the grave.

But not quite. For in the midst of his "proper, socially acceptable life", Ivan Ilyich slips from a stepladder and bangs his side "against the knob of a window frame." So begins his fall from grace and, as his dying proceeds, his awakening.
As death subsumes him - day by day, hour by hour, and minute by minute, in Tolstoy's depiction - he's forced to confront the truth about himself. Finally, with seconds left to live, he "catches sight of the light".

It's revealed to him that though his life has "not been what it should have been, this could still be rectified". At death, it becomes clear to Ivan Ilyich that "what had been oppressing him and would not leave him was all dropping away at once from two sides, from ten sides, and from all sides...'So that's what it is!'" he exclaims. "'What joy!'"

Harrowing as this novella is, it's also moving - at least to me - beyond words. It was moving, too, when I read it at 18: an age so often the height of delusion, when invincibility can seem a birthright. I was pierced, and I was seized, too, by the power of literature, and by the prospect of its engagement with my life.

About the Author
Leo Nikolaivich Tolstoy was born on August 28, 1828 to Princess Marie Volkonsky and Count Nicolas Tolstoy. Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, the Volkonsky manor house on the road to Kieff in Russia. It was here that he was to spend the majority of his adult life. Leo was the fourth and last son of the family; they also had one daughter. Tolstoy's mother died when he was 18 months old, an event that would forever affect his feelings about women and motherhood.external image product_thumbnail.php?productId=20590005&resolution=320 His father died when Tolstoy was nine years old, and the children grew up with a variety of aunts. According to Tolstoy, one of those aunts, Tatiana Yergolsky, "had the greatest influence on [his] life" because she taught him "the moral joy of love."
All four Tolstoy sons attended the University of Kazan. An irregular student, Tolstoy studied law, but he was more attracted by high society than by the rote learning methods employed at the University. When his brother Nicolas finished school and enlisted in the Russian military, Tolstoy took advantage of the opportunity to leave as well. He went to St. Petersburg and Moscow, where he led a debauched life and claimed in his diary that "I am living like a beast." In April 1851 Nicolas, disturbed by the direction of his brother's life, convinced him to head for the Caucasus Mountains with Nicolas' artillery division. Their journey to the Caucasus, over land and sea, was to form the backbone of Leo's 1861 novel The Cossacks. Tolstoy became a soldier and stayed in the Caucasus' for three years, where he wrote his first novel, Childhood, in the winter of 1851-1852. It was published in a leading St. Petersburg review, Sovremennik, in September 1852. The review would also serialize some of Tolstoy's later works, includingBoyhood and Youth.
Tolstoy, 1856
Tolstoy, 1856
When the Crimean War broke out in 1853, Tolstoy was transferred to the front. During his experience with the War in Sebastopol, he had the first of many religious awakenings, believing that he needed to "create a new religion corresponding to the development of mankind." After Sebastopol capitulated in August 1855, he went to St. Petersburg to report on the battle, and then he left the army for good. In St. Petersburg, Tolstoy was well-received by the literary community, but he also often fought with many of them, including disagreements with the great author Turgenev (Fathers & Sons). He was elected a member of the Moscow Literary Society in February 1859.

When Tolstoy's beloved brother Nicolas died of consumption on September 20, 1860, he turned his focus towards his religious feelings and his desire to do good works. He toured Europe, studying its educational systems in the hope of starting new schools in Russia. When the serfs were liberated on February 19, 1861, he hurried back to Russia in order to mediate between them and their former masters. Unfortunately, because he frequently sided with the serfs, he was forced out of his mediator position. This conflict between Tolstoy's status as a wealthy landowner and his desire to help the poor would cause him problems for the rest of his life.
On September 23, 1862, at the age of 34, Tolstoy married 18-year-old Sophia Behrs, the youngest daughter of a
Tolstoy in 1848
Tolstoy in 1848
wealthy family which he had known for many years. During their early days of marriage, he conceived the idea of a novel based on the Decembrists, a group of noble families who attempted to bring the idea of a constitution to state attention in December 1825. As soon as he started doing research on their work, however, the whole period of the Napoleonic wars unfolded. The novel was to eventually become Tolstoy's great epic, War and Peace. The novel was serialized over a period of five years, 1864-1869, and at first, the critics were completely baffled by it. Even Turgenev was unsure of the novel's importance. It did not gain critical adoration until several years after it was completed.

Anna Karenina, Tolstoy's next work, was based on the real-life case of a young woman whom Tolstoy knew. She was a young society woman who threw herself under a train over what was then called "a romance." The novel was serialized during 1873-1876, and was widely regarded as a triumph. At the time of Anna Karenina's composition, Tolstoy was undergoing another important stage in his religious process. He was questioning the integrity of the Greek Orthodox Church and the morality of Russian high society; those questions are brought to the fore in this work.
Anton Chekov (left) and Tolstoy
Anton Chekov (left) and Tolstoy
Throughout the composition of Anna Karenina and later writings including Resurrection(1899) and the masterful short novel The Death of Ivan Ilyitch (1886), Tolstoy was heavily involved in public works. His work in the 1880s, for example, mostly involved a stream of pamphlets and didactic articles concerning religion, educational instruction, economics, and lifestyle. He wrote articles praising vegetarianism, temperance, chastity, and wealth redistribution through collective ownership of land. He underlined the importance of these lessons through personal example. When a series of famines struck Russia in the early 1890s, for example, he and his family moved deep into the countryside in order to set up soup kitchens - 246 of them by July 1892.

By the turn of the century, Tolstoy was universally loved and respected by all classes
Tolstoy Memorial Service
Tolstoy Memorial Service
of people except for the very wealthy and powerful. In part to mediate some of his influence, the Russian Church (Greek Orthodox) excommunicated him in March 1901. He was also denounced by the state as an anarchist in 1891, and he increasingly had to publish his works abroad because of censorship. These measures failed to lessen Tolstoy's popularity with the working class - on the day after the Church's excommunication announcement, students and workers paraded in public squares and accosted Tolstoy with such support and sympathy that he was forced to run back into his house.

Though his health began to fail in 1901, Tolstoy continued his writing and his public work until the end of his life. In his final years, he became more fixed on spiritual ideas and moral perfection. Desiring complete freedom from social responsibilities, he left his wife on November 10, 1910 in order to live in a hut in the woods and concentrate on spiritual matters. It was during this final journey that he died, on November 21, 1910, in a village near the Shamardin Convent. Appropriately, peasants brought his body to Yasnaya Polyana.

The Death of Ivan Ilych by Leo Tolstoy: A Story for All Souls

by Sean Fitzpatrick

A man lies on his deathbed...... screaming; screaming for three days without cessation. Even behind closed doors, the sound horrifies all who hear even its muffled suggestion. The death of Ivan Ilych was no peaceful affair. It was a fight literally to the death; and it is a struggle we all must undergo, for we all must die.
We all must die.
No matter how common this truth, it is still brutal in brevity—more like a grim sentence than a grammatical sentence. How one confronts it makes all the difference. Some confront it with John Donne’s sonnet, “Death Be Not Proud.” Others share St. John’s vision: “And behold a pale horse, and he that sat upon him, his name was Death, and hell followed him.” Whether serene or screaming, we all play Hamlet:
…To die, to sleep,To sleep, perchance to dream; aye, there’s the rub,For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come,When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,Must give us pause.
At this dying time of year, human thoughts and liturgies turn toward the departed; and hence, the human obligation to die:
  • What is the purpose of life?

  • What occurs after death?

Such existential meditations are central in Leo Tolstoy’s writings; and perhaps never presented with such emotional, fearful force as in his short work, The Death of Ivan Ilych. A source of this novella’s power lies in the fact that its conflicts and revelations reflect Tolstoy’s own in many ways.
Tolstoy's death mask
Tolstoy's death mask
One night, at a country inn in Arzamas, Tolstoy had a life-changing experience. He felt assured that Death was present within the house. The incident actually drove the writer to mental prostration, spurring him to the study of religion and doctrines of death to overcome his dread of mortality. Ultimately, he rejected Boethian consolations of philosophy and Biblical fortifications of faith in favor of the simple worldview of the Russian rustic, whose honest acceptance of death bore the wisdom of ages.

Tolstoy upheld that the uneducated, underestimated poor were the preservers of Christianity. He struggled against the forms of orthodox civilization and the Orthodox Church, following instead the serf’s faith and fellowship. Towards the end of his life, he wore only peasant garb and refused all royalties for his writings. Despite this shift into simplicity, Tolstoy’s passionate radicalism had already driven a wedge between him and his wife, Sofya. Mutual resentments led to such strife that Tolstoy, aged eighty-two, left her. He boarded a train for a monastery where he might live out his remaining days, but fell ill in transit and died in a railroad station.
Leo Tolstoy was an artist attracted to extremes, and his work scrutinizes extreme situations—situations of life and death. The Death of Ivan Ilych is a perfect example. Ivan Ilych: a man engulfed in the habits of a class bred by hypocrisy—a sine qua non of cosmopolitan courtesy. He is as disingenuous as anyone in his social circle: nurturing shallow yet fashionable friendships, forcing a bad marriage that looked good, and utilizing career to define his worth. He labors on the judge’s bench, claws for seniority, navigates marital altercations, and plays bridge. It is only when his life unexpectedly dwindles to death (sustaining an injury hanging curtains) that he tries to comfort himself with a life well lived; and realizes the lie that his life is.
Faced with his end, Ivan Ilych learned the unbearable truth that he was dead long before he was called to die. He
Tolstoy on his death bed, from a postcard, 1910
Tolstoy on his death bed, from a postcard, 1910
had participated in a vast vanity. Every detail of his life mocked him with hollow insincerity; from his wife’s disdainful assurances that he would recover, to his watch-chain medallion engraved with Respice finem, “be mindful of the end.” Too late, the unmindful Ivan Ilych saw his life as artificial rather than authentic.

Ivan Ilych placed all his chips on the modern, material, rational world and lost his bet. There was a time when he had no concern for lowly, backward folk like his butler’s assistant, Gerasim—until he discovered that Gerasim was the only person who actually treated him like a dying man. This hearty, healthy country youth admitted that all that live must die—and so administered to his master with patience and sympathy. For some time, Ivan Ilych found no comfort save for the human touch that Gerasim provided as he good-naturedly and tirelessly held the dying man’s legs up to relieve his pain—the pain of malady and the pain of knowledge that he had not lived as he ought to have.
Leo Tolstoy with his grandchildren
Leo Tolstoy with his grandchildren
Despite these periods of relief, Ivan Ilych fought to rationalize his way out of the “black sack” that death was thrusting him into with indomitable force. But there was no way out. The Judge was coming for the judge. Ivan Ilych dragged rationality to its limit—and then began screaming like an animal. He would have screamed all the way into his grave had it not been for a second touch—a touch more intimate than his selfless servant’s: a touch from his son. A peace that Ivan Ilych had never known was imparted by this touch because he had never known love. The black sack suddenly became a life-giving womb. At last, Ivan Ilych was able to surrender to death without screaming.

Ivan Ilych’s physical life had been spiritual death.
His physical death was spiritual life.
Tolstoy believed that crisis was necessary to comprehend the essential. Ivan Ilych is a testament to this belief. He
A Tolstoy family meal at Yasnaya Polyana. Sofia is seated at right.
A Tolstoy family meal at Yasnaya Polyana. Sofia is seated at right.
was by all accounts a successful man—who found that his life was a failure when he had to lose it. Everything he thought solid and profitable was a sham and a lie when he weighed it as the substance of a good life. It was only through direct and genuine human contact that Ivan Ilych was saved and grasped that, though death eclipses the concerns of life, love endures.

The irony of Ivan Ilych’s death is devastating in itself and as a condemnation of the facades of sophisticated society. This devastation does not, however, extend to the recognition of the reality of death—only to one poor soul’s struggle for compromise. Ivan Ilych’s attitude toward life changed through dying, his psyche running the gambit from terror to triumph. Ignoring or denying death embodied Ivan Ilych’s environment, a delusion devised to ward off unpleasantries; which only breeds superficiality, fear, and frustration. Acceptance of death and the irregular patterns of life allows for confidence, concord, and content. As Gerasim put it, “We shall all of us die, so why should I grudge a little trouble?”
The Death of Ivan Ilych is Tolstoy’s parable representing the mystery that living well is the best way to die well—and that is a mystery that all souls should grapple with.

Sean Fitzpatrick is a graduate of Thomas Aquinas College and the Headmaster of Gregory the Great Academy. He lives in Scranton, PA with his wife and family of four.

Key Facts - The Death of Ivan Ilyich
FULL TITLE · The Death of Ivan Ilych
AUTHOR · Leo Tolstoy
TYPE OF WORK · Novella
Leo Tolstoy
Leo Tolstoy

GENRE · Exemplum (tale told explicitly to illustrate a moral lesson); satire of upper class; psychological novella
LANGUAGE · Russian
TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN · Begun in August 1885. Tolstoy completed a finished draft of the story in January 1886, but he revised the proof sheets and submitted a virtually new version of the story in mid-March. The novel's final revision was presented to the publisher on March 25. Written in Russia.
NARRATOR · Omniscient
CLIMAX · The major climax of the novel occurs in chapter XII when Ivan Ilych is suddenly struck in the chest and side and pushed through the black sack into the light. Ivan finally discovers the right way to live and realizes the error of his past life.
ANTAGONIST · Bourgeois society in general, which may take the form of Schwartz, Praskovya, Peter, or a professional colleague.
SETTING (TIME) · Late nineteenth century
SETTING (PLACE) · Petersburg and the surrounding Russian provinces and cities.
Leo Tolstoy playing chess with M. Sukhotin at Yasnaya Polyana. Alongside Tolstoy – his wife. Right – sons Andrew and Michael, 1900s.
Leo Tolstoy playing chess with M. Sukhotin at Yasnaya Polyana. Alongside Tolstoy – his wife. Right – sons Andrew and Michael, 1900s.
· The novel is from the point of view of the omniscient narrator, although action occasionally progresses from Ivan's point of view.

FALLING ACTION · Insofar as Ivan experiences his climactic epiphany in a single moment before his death, the novel contains no falling action. The falling action for the other characters occurs in Chapter I of this chronologically out-of-sequence novel.
TENSE · Past
TONE · Frequently satirical and mocking; subtly pedagogical
THEMES · The right life; the inevitability of death; inner life vs. outer life
MOTIFS · Reversal; alienation; the pleasant, the proper, and the decorous; contraction of time and space; bourgeois society; foreign language references
SYMBOLS · The black sack
FORESHADOWING · By means of ambiguous foreign language references (le phenix de la famille, respice finem), symbolic dreams (the black bag), and descriptive imagery (the fly to a bright light), Tolstoy foreshadows Ivan's death and spiritual rebirth.The Context of the Book
On August 28, 1828 Leo Tolstoy was born into a wealthy aristocratic family that resided at a country estate called Yasnaya Polyana ("Sunny Meadows"), about 120 miles south of Moscow. Death visited the Tolstoy family early. When Tolstoy was only two, his mother died while giving birth to her fifth child. And Tolstoy's father followed suddenly in 1837. Orphaned but
Yasnaya Polyana: estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, Russia.
Yasnaya Polyana: estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, Russia.
well off, Tolstoy was cared for by a succession of female relatives until he attained his maturity in 1848. Although he attended Kazan University for three years, he never completed a degree, choosing instead to return to Yasnaya Polyana to take up permanent residence.

The life of a wealthy Russian master was not for him, however, and in 1851 he joined his brother on active duty with the Russian army. It was during his tour of duty that Tolstoy published his first work, Childhood, an account of the life and experiences of a young boy. The novel garnered him immediate literary recognition. His celebrity status only grew throughout subsequent years as he published more stories and completed two sequels: Childhood: Boyhood and Youth. Yet in 1859, disillusioned with his calling as a writer, Tolstoy returned to Yasnaya Polyana where he devoted himself to estate management and the study of educational practices. In 1862 Tolstoy married Sofia Andreevna Bers and seven years later, in 1869, published his epic work, War and Peace. Anna Karenina, the second long novel on which Tolstoy's fame as a writer is mainly based, followed in 1877.
Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana.
Leo Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana.
From 1875–1878 Tolstoy experienced a period of increasing depression and psychological crisis that was to alter both his philosophy and his art. In A Confession, an autobiographical account of his life and moral struggle written after the crisis, Tolstoy writes that the principal cause of his depression was his inability to find an acceptable meaning in human life. The inevitability of death overwhelmed him, and all formulations of life's meaning appeared to him shallow and valueless. Neither the great philosophers of the past nor his contemporaries could provide him with satisfying answers. Desperate, he turned to the Russian people. Tolstoy found that the uneducated peasants possessed a definite conception of the meaning of a life, a comfort and security derived from "irrational knowledge," from faith in a creator God. This faith rescued them from despair and suffering and infused their life with meaning. Confronted with the choice of irrational faith or meaningless despair, Tolstoy chose faith.

At first attempting to renew contact with the church of his childhood, Tolstoy eventually resolved to develop his own
National Geographic magazine.
National Geographic magazine.
system of belief. And devoting the four years after his crisis (1878–1882) to that purpose, Tolstoy published a series of four works elaborating upon and explaining his unique religious philosophy, works that Tolstoy regarded as his most important achievement as a writer.

It is not insignificant that The Death of Ivan Ilych, written in 1886, was the first major fictional work published by Tolstoy after his crisis and conversion. Tolstoy's religious philosophy serves as a background to the understanding of the novel. Brotherly love, mutual support, and Christian charity, values that became essential to Tolstoy in the second half of his life, emerge as the dominant moral principles in The Death of Ivan Ilych. And just as Tolstoy's discovery of the true meaning of life led him to fulfillment and an acceptance of death, so too, Ivan Ilych's awakening exposes him to the light of a meaningful life and assuages his fear of dying. Thus,The Death of Ivan Ilych can be seen as a reflection and an elaboration of Tolstoy's post- conversion philosophical concerns. The novel is a fictional answer to the questions that plagued Tolstoy during the mid 1870s.

From the time of his conversion to his death, Tolstoy remained actively engaged in publicizing his religious beliefs. He wrote various pieces on social, political, and economic topics ranging from vegetarianism to capital punishment. In hopeless opposition to the government, nearly all of his writings were censored or banned. Tolstoy died in 1910 after nearly a decade of continuing ill health.

Chapter Questions - The Death of Ivan Ilyich
Short Answer Questions
Directions: Answer each question with the appropriate short response.

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 1

1. Who is the main character?
2. What has happened to the main character?
3. What relationship is the main character to Peter Ivanovich?
4. How did Peter Ivanovich learn the fate of the main character?
5. To what event did Peter Ivanovich go to on Friday
6. Who did Peter Ivanovich meet first at Ivan Ilych's house?
7. What did the sight of Ivan Ilych seem to convey to Peter Ivanovich?
8. What is the setting of Chapter 1?
9. What is Praskovya Fedorovna's relationship to the main character?
10. What did Praskovya Fedorovna tell Peter Ivanovich about the main character?
11. What did Peter Ivanovich realize as he was speaking to Praskovya Fedorovna?
12. After offering his condolences, what does Peter Ivanovich tell Praskovya Fedorovna?
13. When Peter Ivanovich encounters Ivan Ilych's daughter and fiance, how to they look?
14. How old is Ivan Ilych's son?
15. What does Ivan Ilych's son's face look like?
16. To what or whom does Peter Ivanovich refuse to yield to?
17. Who is the first to leave the event that happened on Friday?
18. Who says, "death will come to everyone as God's will?"

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 2

1. Which character does Chapter 2 discuss?
2. How does Ivan Ilych's view his life?
3. What does Ivan Ilych see as "doing his duty?"
4. What profession is Ivan Ilych?
5. Why does Ivan Ilych marry?
6. What does Ivan Ilych think of his marriage?
7. What does Ivan Ilych think his wife wants of him?
8. Who is Ivan Ilych's wife?
9. What does Ivan Ilych do the more he senses that his wife is bored all the time?
10. What game does Ivan Ilych like to play?
11. With whom does Ivan Ilych play the game that he enjoys?
12. How does Ivan Ilych's relationship with his wife affect his work?
13. Why doesn't Ivan Ilych change his life?
14. How many children does Ivan Ilych and his wife have together?
15. How many of Ivan Ilych's children die?
16. How does Ivan Ilych's wife react to each child's loss?
17. How satisfied with his life is Ivan Ilych?
18. What has Ivan Ilych's ambitions resulted in?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 3

1. What year is it in the novel?
2. Why is this year the hardest year of Ivan Ilych?
3. In the beginning of Chapter 3, what is Ivan Ilych's professional title?
4. What is wrong with Ivan Ilych's current job?
5. What offends Ivan Ilych the most about being passed over for a promotion?
6. When does Ivan Ilych take a leave of absence from his job?
7. Where does Ivan Ilych take his family when he takes a leave of absence from his job?
8. Why does Ivan Ilych take his family there?
9. Without the distraction of work, what happens to Ivan Ilych?
10. What does Ivan Ilych think will solve his new problem?
11. How much money does Ivan Ilych need to be paid?
12. How long ago did Ivan Ilych start his career?
13. Where did Ivan Ilych find a new job?
14. Why does Ivan Ilych's animosity toward his former colleagues vanish?
15. How much will Ivan Ilych's new job pay on moving expenses?
16. Why is Ivan Ilych able to find a new home that will please both him and his wife?
17. Once settled, what makes Ivan Ilych irritable?
18. What happens to Ivan Ilych one day as he is adjusting a curtain?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 4

1. How does Ivan Ilych respond when confronted with the symptoms of his illness?
2. What are two of Ivan Ilych's symptoms?
3. How does Ivan Ilych react to his worsening pain?
4. How does Ivan Ilych's wife react to his worsening pain?
5. What does Ivan Ilych recognize in the doctor's professional air?
6. What does the doctor ignore?
7. What does the doctor focus on?
8. How does the doctor respond when Ivan Ilych presses him for an answer to the seriousness of his symptoms?
9. What does Ivan Ilych guess the doctor's prognosis is?
10. When Ivan Ilych gets home from the doctor, what does he do?
11. Why are his wife and daughter anxious when Ivan Ilych arrives home?
12. What does Ivan Ilych's wife tell him to do, after he gets back from the doctor?
13. Why does Ivan Ilych think that his case might not be so serious after all?
14. Ivan Ilych's chief concern is to what?
15. When does Ivan Ilych's pain worsen?
16. When Ivan Ilych discovers what makes his pain worse, how does he deal with it?
17. What causes Ivan Ilych much distress?
18. How does Ivan Ilych's wife behave toward his illness?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 5

1. Who is the first character introduced in Chapter 5?
2. Who comes to visit Ivan Ilych in Chapter 5?
3. How long after Ivan Ilych sees the doctor does Chapter 5 begin?
4. What does Ivan Ilych see in the eyes of his brother-in-law?
5. When Ivan Ilych looks in the mirror some time after greeting his brother-in-law, what does he see for the first time?
6. What does Ivan Ilych do for a few hours after seeing himself in the mirror for the first time in quite a while?
7. Ivan Ilych finally realizes, after seeing himself in the mirror, that his condition is a question of what?
8. What does Ivan Ilych admit to himself for the first time after seeing himself in the mirror?
9. After seeing himself for the first time in months in the mirror, what reaction does Ivan Ilych have to what he sees?
10. What does Ivan Ilych hear down the hall?
11. What does Ivan Ilych feel toward what he hears down the hall?
12. What two things that Ivan Ilych hears down the hall makes him react as he does?
13. What are the symptoms that Ivan Ilych has?
14. Is Ivan Ilych in denial about his condition?
15. Who helps Ivan Ilych begin to realize that he is dying?
16. How does Ivan Ilych react to the thought that he is dying?
17. Why does Ivan Ilych react to his realization the way he does?
18. What is the conflict in Chapter 5?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 6

1. After seeing himself in the mirror, what does Ivan Ilych finally admit to himself?
2. How does Ivan Ilych deal with the revelation in Chapter 6?
3. What does Ivan Ilych try to understand?
4. Is Ivan Ilych successful in understanding this?
5. Even after Ivan Ilych realizes that he is going to die, what kinds of thoughts does he try to think about?
6. Why does Ivan Ilych try to replace thoughts of death?
7. In Chapter 6, is Ivan able to replace his thoughts of death?
8. Where does Ivan try to work?
9. How does Ivan try to live?
10. Why does Ivan Ilych have difficulty working?
11. What does Ivan Ilych consider the worst part of death?
12. What is Ivan Ilych forced to do with his thoughts of death?
13. Ivan Ilych knows he gave his life to what?
14. When does Ivan Ilych believe his illness began?
15. What galls Ivan Ilych to think?
16. Why is it ironic that Ivan resents that his death is trivial?
17. What major theme of the novel is introduced in Chapter 6?
18. What has Ivan Ilych used as an escape from reality?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 7

1. Which character is introduced in Chapter 7?
2. What month of Ivan's illness begins Chapter 7?
3. What does Ivan realize in Chapter 7?
4. What medicines are often given to Ivan?
5. What affects do these medicines have on Ivan?
6. How bad are the affects of these medicines?
7. What does food become to Ivan?
8. How much does Ivan sleep?
9. What is the hardest thing for Ivan to bear?
10. How do most people act toward Ivan?
11. How do most people treat Ivan's dying?
12. How does Gerasim treat Ivan?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 8

1. In Chapter 8, Ivan is angry with whom?
2. How often does Ivan experience physical pain?
3. Why does Ivan say his mental pain is worse?
4. Ivan compares the doctor's visit to what?
5. How does Ivan feel when his wife enters his room in Chapter 8?
6. What has Ivan's wife ordered in Chapter 8?
7. How does Ivan's wife explain why she ordered what she did in Chapter 8?
8. Of what does Ivan's wife try to convince him?
9. Why does the specialist's visit cause Ivan more pain?
10. One evening, Ivan's wife comes into his room to visit dressed how?
11. Who insisted that Ivan's wife and family go out?
12. Who is Ivan's family going to see at the end of Chatper 8?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 9

1. What characters are mentioned in Chapter 9?
2. What does Ivan's wife want to do when she returns from the theater?
3. How does Ivan react to what his wife wants to do when she returns from the theater?
4. What does Ivan's wife tell him to do in Chapter 9?
5. How do Ivan's drugs help his wife and doctors?
6. What adds to Ivan's suffering?
7. How does Ivan relieve his suffering that night in Chapter 9?
8. Who does Ivan begin to question in Chapter 9?
9. Who seems to answer Ivan's questions?
10. What does Ivan ask of God?
11. What does Ivan realize when he looks back at his life?
12. When does Ivan recognize that his real life began to ebb?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 10

1. In Chapter 10, where is Ivan for the next two weeks?
2. What has Ivan stopped thinking about by chapter 10?
3. Instead, what does Ivan think about in Chapter 10?
4. By Chapter 10, how does Ivan feel in his thoughts?
5. Where does Ivan live in his thoughts?
6. His memories of the past lead Ivan specifically to where?
7. In Chapter 10, how does Ivan feel about his memories of the past?
8. How does Ivan react to his memories?
9. What does Ivan realize the further back in his memories he goes?
10. What explanation has Ivan for the realizations about his memories?
11. His memories make it difficult for Ivan to do what?
12. What does Ivan figure out in Chapter 10 about his life?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 11

1. How much time has passed at the beginning of Chapter 11?
2. What has Ivan stopped doing?
3. Why does Ivan's wife enter his room in Chapter 11?
4. How does Ivan respond to his wife entering his room?
5. What does Ivan seriously consider in Chapter 11?
6. What does Ivan think he was too quick to do?
7. What does Ivan think may have been real after all?
8. What does Ivan begin to review in Chapter 11?
9. In Chapter 11, Ivan sees that his deceptions have done what?
10. In Chapter 11, what does his awareness about his deceptions cause Ivan to do?
11. In Chapter 11, what does Ivan do at his wife's suggestion?
12. Ivan feels no lasting comfort in what?

Short Answer Questions - Chapter 12

1. What does Ivan do for the last three days of his life?
2. What does Ivan struggle with during the last three days of his life?
3. What does Ivan try to hang onto at the end of his life?
4. Why does Ivan try to hang onto what he does at the end of his life?
5. What does the idea that he hasn't lived a good life stop Ivan from being able to do?
6. For Ivan, what does the thought that he hasn't lived a good life cause?
7. What does Ivan find once he feels he is pushed through the hole?
8. What does Ivan realize about his life once he feels he is pushed through the hole?
9. What broader concept about life does Ivan come to see once he feels he is pushed through the hole?
10. How long does Ivan ponder his broader concept about life before his actual death?
11. When Ivan's son enters his room, what does his son do?
12. Others see Ivan twitch and gasp for two more hours, but Ivan experiences what?

Click below to listen to a 28-minute discussion of Tolstoy's "The Death of Ivan Ilyich"

Leo Tolstoy's Ivan Ilyich is a Russian judge and middle-class everyman. Struck down by disease at forty-five, Ivan discovers a horrifying truth: He has not lived a meaningful life.

Chapter Two’s opening words reveal a more alarming reality: “Ivan Ilyich’s life had been most simple and commonplace—and most horrifying.” The omniscient narrator takes the reader back to Ivan’s happy childhood, predictable youth, and ambitious adulthood. Praskovya Fedorovna falls in love with him, so he marries her. In less than a year, his discontentment leads him to escape into work and his favorite pastime, playing cards. In time, he buys a house, and Praskovya bears five children, three of whom die. He shrewdly climbs the Russian social ladder and receives an impressive income. The couple moves to a new city, buys a bigger house, and avoids genuine intimacy. They continue their comfortable, contented lives for almost two decades.

Musical Works

Cello Suite No. 6: Sarabande
Alexander Rudin
Bach's Complete Cello Suites.
Naxos of America, Inc.
Piano Concerto No. 2: "Adagio sostenuto"
Performed by Bernd Glemser, piano, with the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, Antoni Wit, conductor [Rachmaninov]
Piano Concertos Nos. 2 and 3 .
Naxos of America
Piano Concerto No. 3: "Allegro ma non tanto,"
Performed by Bernd Glemser, piano, with the Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, Antoni Wit, conductor [Rachmaninov]
Piano Concertos Nos. 2 and 3.
Naxos of America, Inc.
"Gigue" (transcribed from Bach)
Idil Biret, piano
Rachmaninov: Piano Transcriptions and Arrangements.
Naxos of America, Inc.
"Lullaby" (transcribed from Tchaikovsky)
Idil Biret, piano
Rachmaninov: Piano Transcriptions and Arrangements .
Naxos of America, Inc.
Dance of the Young Gypsy Maidens from Aleko
Idil Biret, piano
Rachmaninov: Piano Transcriptions and Arrangements .
Naxos of America
The Isle Of The Dead, Op. 29
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Enrique Bátiz, conductor
Rachmaninov: Symphonic Dances.
Naxos of America, Inc.
Vespers, Op. 37: "Bless the Lord, O my soul"
Finnish National Opera Chorus
All-Night Vigil.
Naxos of America, Inc.
Not Dark Yet
Bob Dylan
Time Out of Mind.
Sony BMG Music Entertainment

Additional Credits

Written and produced by Dan Stone.
Production Assistance and Music Permissions by Adam Kampe.
Administrative assistants, Pepper Smith and Erika Koss.

Special thanks to Ken Huffman, Laura Bradshaw, Jeff Rosen.
"Not Dark Yet," written by Bob Dylan, published with permission of Special Rider Music (SESAC)
Yegor'yevskii Peal recorded at St. Nicholas Orthodox Church in San Anselmo, California (2006), used courtesy of Mark D. Galperin, producer, at Blagovest Bells.

Listen to the Librivox audiobook here:

by Elie Wiesel

Night is narrated by Eliezer, a Jewish teenager who, when the memoir begins, lives in his hometown of Sighet, in Hungarian Transylvania. the Torah (the first five books of the Old Testament) and the Kabbala (a doctrine of Jewish mysticism). His instruction is cut
short, however, when his teacher, Moshe the Beadle, is deported. In a few , Moshe returns, telling a horrifying tale: the Gestapo (the German secret police force) took charge of his train, led everyone into the woods, and systematically butchered them. Nobody believes Moshe, who is taken for a lunatic.

In the spring of 1944, the Nazis occupy Hungary. Not long afterward, a series of increasingly repressive measures are passed, and the Jews of Eliezer’s town are forced into small ghettos within Sighet. Soon they are herded onto cattle cars, and a nightmarish journey ensues. After days and nights crammed into the car, exhausted and near starvation, the passengers arrive at Birkenau, the gateway to Auschwitz.

Upon his arrival in Birkenau, Eliezer and his father are separated from his mother and sisters, whom they never see again. In the first of many “selections” that Eliezer describes in the memoir, the Jews are evaluated to determine whether they should be killed immediately or put to work. Eliezer and his father seem to pass the evaluation, but before they are brought to the prisoners’ barracks, they stumble upon the open-pit furnaces where the Nazis are burning babies by the truckload.
Elie Wiesel Buchenwald Concentration Camp Holocaust Survivor.jpg
The Jewish arrivals are stripped, shaved, disinfected, and treated with almost unimaginable cruelty. Eventually, their captors march them from Birkenau to the main camp, Auschwitz. They eventually arrive in Buna, a work camp, where Eliezer is put to work in an electrical-fittings factory. Under slave-labor conditions, severely malnourished and decimated by the frequent “selections,” the Jews take solace in caring for each other, in religion, and in Zionism, a movement favoring the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine, considered the holy land. In the camp, the Jews are subject to beatings and repeated humiliations. A vicious foreman forces Eliezer to give him his gold tooth, which is pried out of his mouth with a rusty spoon.

The prisoners are forced to watch the hanging of fellow prisoners in the camp courtyard. On one occasion, the Gestapo even hang a small child who had been associated with some rebels within Buna. Because of the wiesel  pic.jpg conditions in the camps and the ever-present danger of death, many of the prisoners themselves begin to slide into cruelty, concerned only with personal survival. Sons begin to abandon and abuse their fathers. Eliezer himself begins to lose his humanity and his faith, both in God and in the people around him.

After months in the camp, Eliezer undergoes an operation for a foot injury. While he is in the infirmary, however, the Nazis decide to evacuate the camp because the Russians are advancing and are on the verge of liberating Buna. In the middle of a snowstorm, the prisoners begin a death march: they are forced to run for more than fifty miles to the Gleiwitz concentration camp. Many die of exposure to the harsh weather and exhaustion. At Gleiwitz, the prisoners are herded into cattle cars once again. They begin another deadly journey: one hundred Jews board the car, but only twelve remain alive when the train reaches the concentration camp Buchenwald. Throughout the ordeal, Eliezer and his father help each other to survive by means of mutual support and concern. In Buchenwald, however, Eliezer’s father dies of dysentery and physical abuse. Eliezer survives, an empty shell of a man until April 11, 1945, the day that the American army liberates the camp. [Adapted from Sparknotes, Plot Overview]
In our study of "Night," we'll focus on two central questions regarding our relationship to the world as found in this definitive book/memoir of the Shoah:
  • What is the relationship between our stories and our identity?
  • To what extent are we all witnesses of history and messengers to humanity?


by Elie Wiesel

Journaling Through The Kingdom of Night...

Chapter 1
  1. Where did Elie Wiesel spend his childhood?
  2. Name his 3 sisters
  3. Describe Moshe the Beadle
  4. What happens to Moshe in the beginning of chapter 1
  5. Upon his return, what story does Moshe relate?
  6. Why don’t the people of Sighet believe Moshe’s story?
  7. Why does he say he came back?
  8. How do the people of Sighet feel about the Germans at first?
  9. What rights did the Jews lose after Passover?
  10. Why were the Jews forced to live in the Ghettos?
  11. What news does Elie’s father learn the Saturday before Pentecost?
  12. Describe the scene on pp 14&15(leaving the ghetto). Please do not copy the words. How does it make you feel?

Chapter 2
  1. Describe the situation on the train.
  2. What does Madame Schachter say she sees?
  3. What did the people on the train do to quiet her down?
  4. Where does the train finally stop?3964856337_89863de1fc.Caricature.jpg
  5. How were Madame Schachter’s screams a premonition?
  6. Describe the scene on pp 22-23.

Chapter 3
  1. What is going to happen to the prisoners at Auschwitz?
  2. What would have happened to Elie if he did not lie about his ag e?
  3. When Elie arrived at the barracks, what was he made to do?
  4. What was the inscription on the iron door of Auschwitz?
  5. Do you believe the inscription was true?
  6. What does the Pole in charge of Elie’s group advise him to do?
  7. How does Drumer explain the reason the Jews are at the camp?

Chapter 4

  1. Where were Elie and his father sent to work?
  2. Why did Elie have to go to the dentist?
  3. How did the French girl hide her identity?
  4. From page 52, Why do you think people change so much?
  5. What happened to Elie and his father when Franek asked for Elie’s gold crown?
  6. What was Elie’s punishment for seing Idek with a girl?
  7. What is the punishment for stealing soup?

Chapter 5
  1. Where did Elie go after Yom Kippur?
  2. Why did Elie have to go to the hospital?
  3. What happened to those whom stayed behind?

Chapter 6
  1. Why did Elie’s father not let him sleep?
  2. Describe the vents in chapter 6.5058191618_d60bc4253b_z.AushwitzGate.jpg
  3. What did they do with the dead bodies on the train?
  4. What happened when workmen threw bread on the train?
  5. Meir Katz groaned, “Why don’t they shoot us right away?” Why do you think they didn’t?

Chapter 7

  1. What did they do with the dead bodies on the train?
  2. What happened when workmen threw bread on the train?
  3. Meir Katz groaned, “Why don’t they shoot us right away?” Why do you think they didn’t?

Chapter 8
  1. What is happening to Elie’s father?
  2. How does Elie feel about this?
  3. How does Elie’s father die?

Chapter 9
  1. What does Elie see in the mirror when he looks back at his reflection for the first time since his imprisonment?
  2. In what ways is his reflected image symbolic of his internal self as well as a description of his physical appearance?
  3. Why can he never forget the look he saw in the eyes of his reflection?

Arbeit Mach Frei.Gate.jpg

by Elie Wiesel
Reading Schedule
Chapters Assigned
Reading Dates
Pages 1-20
September 10-14
Pages 21-41
September 17-21
Pages 42-62
September 24-28
Pages 63-83
October 1-5
Pages 84-104
October 8-12
Pages 105-115
October 15-19

Video Content from class...
for your perusal and edification...


"The Bear That Wasn't"


"Why We Remember The Holocaust"http://www.ushmm.org/remembrance/dor/video/?content=whyweremember

Rena Finder, Schindler Survivor ("Schindler Juden"), Personal Testimony

Elie Wiesel on Writing Night: "We May Use Words to Break the Prison"

DEFIANT REQUIEM tells the little-known story of the Nazi concentration camp, Terezin. Led by imprisoned conductor Rafael Schächter, the inmates of Terezin fought back...with art and music. Through hunger, disease and slave labor, the
Jewish inmates of Terezin hold onto their humanity by staging plays, composing opera and using paper and ink to record the horrors around them.
This creative rebellion reaches its peak when Schächter teaches a choir of 150 inmates one of the world's most difficult and powerful choral works, Verdi's Requiem, re-imagined as a condemnation of the Nazis. The choir would ultimately confront the Nazis face to face... and sing to them what they dare not say.
For over ten years, conductor Murry Sidlin has dreamed of bringing the Requiem back to Terezin. Now, through soaring concert footage, powerful survivor recollections, cinematic dramatizations and evocative animation, DEFIANT REQUIEM brings the incredible story of this artistic uprising to life.

holocaustremembrance.jpgThe Holocaust Remembrance Project is designed to encourage the study of the Holocaust and related events in our history and serve as a living memorial to the millions of victims of the Holocaust.The project involves a national college scholarship essay contest and awards college scholarships to the top 10 writers. These winners join a select group of educators and Holocaust survivors for Scholar Week, a week-long, in-depth educational experience to dissect this watershed event in world history, and how it relates to our world today. The 2012 Scholar Week is provided in partnership with Facing History and Ourselves and OneWorld Boston, an affiliate of Cummings Foundation.
Since the Project’s inception in 1995, the Holland & Knight Charitable Foundation has awarded more than $1,000,000 in scholarships. Tens of thousands of high schools students have participated as researchers and writers. Select educators are asked to join Scholar Week and are provided with detailed teaching materials so that they may share the messages of the Holocaust Remembrance Project with a lifetime of students.

The Face of Cold Brutality: Amon Goethe, Commandant of Plaszow Concentration Work Camp
Amon Goeth, from left to right (clockwise): As a young officer, on the infamous balcony of his house looking over the camp, as a convicted war criminal, just prior to his execution. After the Supreme National Tribunal of Poland at Kraków found him guilty of murdering tens of thousands of people, he was executed by hanging not far from the former site of the Płaszów camp. The film Schindler's List depicts his occasional practice of shooting camp internees for sport.




The Face of Courage & Rescue: Oskar SchindlerSchindler died in Hildesheim in Germany October 9, 1974. He wanted to be buried in Jerusalem. As he said: "My children are here ..."Pictures from clockwise, from top left:
Oskar Schindler in Krackow, 1940; with a group of "Schindler Juden," Jews who were on his famous list and survived the Holocaust as a result; Emilie & Oskar Schindler; cover of Biography magazine; book cover; with
Rabbi Menashe Levertov; with Itzhak Stern, who was played by Ben Kingsley in the film; Oskar Schindler's gravesite, at the Catholic Franciscan's cemetery[18[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oskar_Schindler#cite_note-Deutsches_Historisches_Museum-17|]]] on Mount Zion, the only member of the Nazi Party to be ever be honoured in this way. A large group of Schindler's List survivors surrounding the site.

sch016.schindler.Krakow.jpg schinder and group.jpg


To see the web version of the real Schindler's List, go here (at oskarchindler.com):http://www.oskarschindler.com/list.htm



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Review of George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty Four

New York Times, 12 June 1949

James Joyce, in the person of Stephen Dedalus, made a now famous distinction between static and kinetic art. Great art is static in its effects; it exists in itself, it demands nothing beyond itself. Kinetic art exists in order to demand; not self-contained, it requires either loathing or desire to achieve its function. The quarrel about the fourth book of ''Gulliver's Travels'' that continues to bubble among scholars -- was Swift's loathing of men so great, so hot, so far beyond the bounds of all propriety and objectivity that in this book he may make us loathe them and indubitably makes us loathe his imagination? -- is really a quarrel founded on this distinction. It has always seemed to the present writer that the fourth book of ''Gulliver's Travels'' is a great work of static art; no less, it would seem to him that George Orwell's new novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, is a great work of kinetic art. This may mean that its greatness is only immediate, its power for us alone, now, in this generation, this decade, this year, that it is doomed to be the pawn of time. Nevertheless it is probable that no other work of this generation has made us desire freedom more earnestly or loathe tyranny with such fullness.

''Nineteen Eighty-four'' appears at first glance to fall into that long-established tradition of satirical fiction, set either in future times or in imagined places or both, that contains works so diverse as ''Gulliver's Travels'' itself, Butler's ''Erewhon,'' and Huxley's ''Brave New World.'' Yet before one has finished reading the nearly bemused first page, it is evident that this is fiction of another order, and presently one makes the distinctly unpleasant discovery that it is not to be satire at all.

In the excesses of satire one may take a certain comfort. They provide a distance from the human condition as we m
eet it in our daily life that preserves our habitual refuge in sloth or blindness or self-righteousness. Mr. Orwell's earlier book, Animal Farm, is such a work. Its characters are animals, and its content is therefore fabulous, and its horror, shading into comedy, remains in the generalized realm of intellect, from which our feelings need fear no onslaught. But ''Nineteen Eighty-four'' is a work of pure horror, and its horror is crushingly immediate.

The motives that seem to have caused the difference between these two novels provide an instructive lesson in the operations of the literary imagination. ''Animal Farm'' was, for all its ingenuity, a rather mechanical allegory; it was an expression of Mr. Orwell's moral and intellectual indignation before the concept of totalitarianism as localized in Russia. It was also bare and somewhat cold and, without being really very funny, undid its potential gravity and the very real gravity of its subject, through its comic devices. ''Nineteen Eighty-four'' is likewise an expression of Mr. Orwell's moral and intellectual indignation before the concept of totalitarianism, but it is not only that.

It is also -- and this is no doubt the hurdle over which many loyal liberals will stumble -- it is also an expression of Mr. Orwell's irritation at many facets of British socialism, and most particularly, trivial as this may seem, at the drab gray pall that life in Britain today has drawn across the civilized amenities of life before the war.

In 1984, the world has been divided into three great super-states -- Eastasia, Eurasia, and Oceania. Eurasia followed upon ''the absorption of Europe by Russia,'' and Oceania, ''of the British Empire by the United States.'' England is known as Airstrip One, and London is its capital. The English language is being transformed into something called Newspeak, a devastating bureaucratic jargon whose aim is to reduce the vocabulary to the minimum number of words so that ultimately there will be no tools for thinking outside the concepts provided by the state.

Oceania is controlled by the Inner Party. The Party itself comprises 25 per cent of the population, and only the select members of the Inner Party do not live in total slavery. The bulk of the population is composed of the ''proles,'' a depraved mass encouraged in a gross, inexpensive debauchery. For Party members, sexual love, like all love, is a crime, and female chastity has been institutionalized in the Anti-Sex League.

Party members cannot escape official opinion or official observation, for every room is equipped with a telescreen that cannot be shut off; it not only broadcasts at all hours, but it also registers precisely with the Thought Police every image and voice; it also controls all the activities that keep the private life public, such as morning calisthenics beside one's bed. It is the perpetually open eye and mouth. The dictator, who may or may not be alive but whose poster picture looks down from almost every open space, is known as B. B., or Big Brother, and the political form is called Ingsoc, the Newspeak equivalent of English socialism.

One cannot briefly outline the whole of Mr. Orwell's enormously careful and complete account of life in the super-state, nor do more than indicate its originality. He would seem to have thought of everything, and with vast skill he has woven everything into the life of one man, a minor Party member, one of perhaps hundreds of others who are in charge of the alteration of documents necessary to the preservation of the ''truth'' of the moment.

Through this life we are instructed in the intricate workings of what is called ''thoughtcrime'' (here Mr. Orwell would seem to have learned from Koestler's ''Darkness at Noon''), but through this life we are likewise instructed in more public matters such as the devious economic structure of Oceania, and the nature and necessity of permanent war as two of the great super-states ally themselves against a third in an ever-shifting and ever-denied pattern of change. But most important, we are ourselves swept into the meaning and the means of a society which has as its single aim the total destruction of the individual identity.

To say more is to tell the personal history of Winston Smith in what is probably his thirty-ninth year, and one is not disposed to rob the reader of a fresh experience of the terrific, long crescendo and the quick decrescendo that George Orwell has made of this struggle for survival and the final extinction of a personality. It is in the intimate history, of course, that he reveals his stature as a novelist, for it is here that the moral and the psychological values with which he is concerned are brought out of the realm of political prophecy into that of personalized drama.

"Nineteen Eighty-four,'' the most contemporary novel of this year and who knows of how many past and to come, is a great examination into and dramatization of Lord Acton's famous apothegm, ''Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.''



The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. According to these historical approximations, totalitarian regimes are more repressive of pluralism and political rights than authoritarian ones. Under a totalitarian regime, the state controls nearly every aspect of the individual's life. Totalitarian governments do not tolerate activities by individuals or groups such as labor unions that are not directed by the state's goals. Totalitarian regimes maintain themselves in power through secret police, propaganda disseminated through the media, the elimination of open criticism of the regime, and use of terror tactics. Internal and external threats are created to foster unity through fear.

1984by George Orwell
Key Facts

Full Title · 1984

Author · George Orwell

Type Of Work · Novel

Genre · Negative utopian, or dystopian, fiction

Language · English

Time And Place Written · England, 1949

Date Of First Publication · 1949

Publisher · Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.

Narrator · Third-person, limited

Climax · Winston’s torture with the cage of rats in Room 101

Protagonist · Winston Smith

Antagonist · The Party; Big Brother

Setting (Time) · 1984

Setting (Place) · London, England (known as “Airstrip One” in the novel’s alternate reality)

Point Of View · Winston Smith’s

Falling action · Winston’s time in the café following his release from prison, including the memory of his meeting with Julia at the end of Book Three

Tense · Past

Foreshadowing · Winston’s dreams (making love to Julia in the forest, meeting O’Brien in the “place where there is no darkness”); the St. Clement’s Church song (“Here comes a chopper to chop off your head!”)

Tone · Dark, frustrated, pessimistic

Themes · The psychological, technological, physical, and social dangers of totalitarianism and political authority; the importance of language in shaping human thought

Motifs · Urban decay (London is falling apart under the Party’s leadership); the idea of doublethink (the ability to hold two contradictory ideas in one’s mind at the same time and believe them both to be true)

Symbols · The glass paperweight (Winston’s desire to connect with the past); the red-armed prole woman (the hope that the proles will ultimately rise up against the Party); the picture of St. Clement’s Church (the past); the telescreens and the posters of Big Brother (the Party’s constant surveillance of its subjects); the phrase “the place where there is no darkness” (Winston’s tendency to mask his fatalism with false hope, as the place where there is no darkness turns out to be not a paradise but a prison cell)

Chapter Questions:1984 by George Orwell

These questions will be used as homework. Answer them as you read, though not all will be due; you'll benefit greatly. Journals of emphasized questions are due in class on Fridays. 1984 is a dense and challenging book. Don't just "read" .... THINK-THINK-THINK... Journal your thoughts and questions as they come into your mind as you "read" the text... What are the ASSUMPTIONS Orwell is making behind the words of the text? What biblical principles are, or are not, evident in the characters' behavior? MEMORY = IDENTITY is again a rubric for perspective, as well as



Chapter 1

  1. When does the story begin?

  2. What kind of day is it?

  3. How have the clocks been changed?

  4. Who is the first character introduced?

  5. Where does he live?

  6. Describe the place (details: smells, conditions)

  7. What is the large poster?

  8. Why doesn’t Winston (W) take the lift?

  9. Why is it difficult for W to climb the stairs?

  10. What is the caption beneath the large poster on the wall?

  11. Where does the “fruity” voice come from?

  12. Can the telescreen be completely shut off?

  13. How does the telescreen differ from our television?

  14. Describe Winston (Be specific)

  15. What is the word on the flapping poster?

  16. What police bother W?

  17. What city and country does W live in?

  18. Can W recall the city of his childhood?

  19. What can W see from his window?

  20. What are the 3 slogans of the party etched on Miniture?

  21. How many buildings like these (and what are they?) can W see from his window?

  22. Which is the most frightening?

  23. Does W have any food?

  24. What does he drink?

  25. What does he smoke?

  26. Where does he sit to write and why?

Chapter 2

  1. What does W realize he has done with his diary?

  2. Who is at the door?

  3. Are the Victory Apartments well built? Explain.

  4. How is the Parson’s flat (apartment) different from W’s?

  5. Why are the children disappointed?

  6. Who is Parsons? Describe him.

  7. How are Parson’s children similar to all kids today.

  8. For what are the children of 1984 being trained?

  9. Who does W think says, “We shall meet in the place where there is no darkness?”

  10. What is the bad news on the telescreen?

  11. What is the only thing people can call their own?

  12. Before W leaves for work, what is the essence of what he writes in his diary?

  13. What ordinary thing does he do before he goes back to work?

  14. What does he put on the corner of the cover of his diary before he leaves?

Chapter 3

  1. What does W think happened to his mother and father?

  2. Why does W think his mother and father had to die?

  3. What change has there been in emotion since W’s mother died?

  4. Of what does W think when in his dream he sees the girl throw off all her clothes in one graceful motion?

  5. Why does W sleep w/o night clothes?

  6. What does W do after his coughing fit?

  7. What can W remember of his early life?

  8. What does W. remember about the beginning of the war?

  9. What country is Oceania at war with at this time?

  10. Why is the Past to be wiped away?

  11. What is W’s decision about the past?

  12. How long has Big Brother (BB) existed in the Party histories?

  13. When does Winston first believe he heard the word “Ingsoc”?

  14. How is W reprimanded?

  15. How does the instructor encourage her audience to touch their toes?

Chapter 4

  1. What is W’s job?

  2. What happens when all corrections are made in the Times?

  3. Is this process of correction used in other media (Newspapers, mags etc..)?

  4. What are some of the jobs of the Ministry of Truth other than the Records department?

  5. Does W enjoy his work?

  6. What happens to people who displease the party?

  7. How does W decide to fulfill his assignment in regard to BB’s speech?

Chapter 5

  1. Describe the canteen.

  2. Who is Syme?

  3. What does he want from W?

  4. What does Syme work on?

  5. What is his remark about the language?

  6. Of what does Syme accuse Winston?

  7. What does Syme say the whole purpose of Newspeak is?

  8. Describe Parsons (p. 49)

  9. What does Parsons want from Winston?

  10. What is Parson’s attitude towards his sweet children, esp. his daughter?

  11. What makes Winston think he has an ancestral memory?

  12. What is the “ideal” type as described by the Party? Remind you of anything?

  13. What are most of the people like (as described by W)?

  14. Who is W afraid of and why?

Chapter 6

  1. According to the Party, what is the only purpose of marriage?

  2. Why have Katherine and Winston separated?

Chapter 7

  1. According to W, where does the only hope lie?

  2. How many proles are there?

  3. What is the Party’s attitude towards the proles?

  4. Is there any attempt to convert the proles to Party ideology?

  5. What does W think are the only characteristics of Party life?

  6. Does the Party admit these equalities?

  7. What happened to the leaders of the revolution by 1960?

  8. What is the significance of the picture showing the three men at the social function in New York?

  9. For whom does W think he is writing his diary?

  10. What does W decide?

Chapter 8

  1. What is a steamer?

  2. Who warns W?

  3. How does the Party fool the people with the lottery?

  4. Why can’t the old man get a pint?

  5. Does W get any important information concerning the Past from the old man?

  6. Where does W eventually find himself?

  7. Does the proprietor recognize W?

  8. What does W find to buy?

  9. Why does he buy it?

  10. What else does the old man show him?

  11. Is W attracted to the room?

  12. What doesn’t the room have?

  13. What picture does W recognize?

  14. What is the proprietor’s real name?

  15. Has W ever heard the church bells ringing?

  16. Does W intend to come back to the shop?

  17. Whom does W see as he leaves the shop?

  18. Why is W worried?

  19. What words does he read on the coin?

    Finger Lakes Christian School
    English Department
    Mr. Hennessy

    1984—Chapter Questions - Book Three

    Chapter 3-I
    1. Where is Winston? How is he treated there and why?
    2. Which of Winston’s acquaintances is in the same place and why?
    3. What happens between the starving man and the chinless man?
    4. What effect to the words “Room 101” have on the skull-faced man?
    5. Who truly is O’Brien? What do he and Charrington have in common?
  20. Chapter 3-II
    1. What sort of treatment does Winston receive on p. 198-200?
    2. What is O’Brien attempting to teach Winston? (p.201-207)
    3. On p. 209—211, O’Brien explains how the Inner Party avoids the mistakes of past totalitarian governments. State in your own words what O’Brien means.
    4. What effect does the (painless) shock treatment have on Winston? (p. 212-213)
    5. What questions does Winston ask O’Brien and what are the responses?
  21. Chapter 3-III
    1. According to O’Brien, what are the three stages in Winston’s re-integration, and which stage is he aobut to enter?
    2. Who wrote Goldstein’s book? Is what the book says true? (Notice the answer in its entirety, p. 215-216)
    3. Why does the Inner Party seek power and how does this reason differ from the reasons of the Soviet Communists under Stalin and the Nazis?
    4. Explain the slogan, “Freedon is Slavery.”
    5. How does one person assert their power over another?
    6. How will Oceania differ from all traditional utopias? (p. 220)
    7. Why does Winston feel he is morally superior to O’Brien and how does O’Brien prove that Winston is wrong?
    8. How does Winston’s physical appearance affect him?
    9. What good thing can Winston say about himself at the end of this chapter?
    10. How does Winston feel about O’Brien? Why?
    11. What final question does Winston ask O’Brien? (p. 225-226)
  22. Chapter 3-IV
    1. How has Winston’s environment changed? What does he do with his time? How does he show his obedience to the Inner Party?
    2. How does Winston show that he is not entirely true to Big Brother?
    3. How does Winston feel about Big Brother?
  23. Chapter 3-V
    1. What happens in Room 101 and how does this “cure” Winston?
  24. Chapter 3-VI
    1. What is the setting?
    2. What is Winston’s job? (Look up “sinecure” if you don’t know it)
    3. How did his meeting with Julia go?
    4. How is it evident that Winston really is a different person?
    5. What is happening in the last two paragraphs of the book?

    An P.O.V.

Joseph Stalin
Monster: A Portrait of Stalin in Blood:http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL913C51F8D747A58C

MACBETHby William Shakespeare

The Structure of Macbeth - The Five-Act Structure
First… The word structure means the way in which the plot (the basic story) is organized, so the audience finds it satisfying – this lecture will be dealing with the elements in the plot and structure which the audience finds fascinating. Knowing the structure helps the audience to get a better understanding of the plot.
The play Macbeth by William Shakespeare is organized into 5 acts – the so-called Five-Act Structure.
The plot is chronological and there aren’t flashbacks. Each act contains several scenes; an example is act three which contains six scenes. The play starts with a prologue scene given by the three witches who occasionally appear between major scenes to foreshadow or comment on events, e.g. act 1, scene 3 (the drums). The three witches start the play with a prophecy that Macbeth will become king and that Banquo’s children will become kings after Macbeth – the scene with the witches is like an initial incident. Furthermore, Shakespeare has some offstage actions in the plot, for example Duncan’s murder and Lady Macbeth’s death. The audience isn't involved in these two scenes. Shakespeare_-_Macbeth.jpg
The Five-Act Structure

Macbeth is organized into five acts:

1. Act I: Exposition: The exposition is quite unclear since the characters are introduced throughout the first part of the play. The entire first act might be a very long exposition. The Witches’ predictions.

2. Act II: Complication: The main conflict becomes more and more complex. The rising action is when some of the prophecies are coming true and Lady Macbeth is trying to convince Macbeth to kill King Duncan. The murder of Duncan.

3. Act III: Crisis: The turning point in the action – point of no return. The murder of Banquo.

4. Act IV: Resolution: The dramatic elements become clearer – the two forces in conflict (good versus evil) grow stronger. All the events occurring after the murder where Macbeth tries to hide his crime and maintain his position as a king "the falling action. Furthermore, Lady Macbeth goes insane. The murder of Lady Macduff.
5. Act V: Dénouement/Disclosure: The “untying of the knots” " Lady Macbeth dies and Macbeth is executed. Malcolm becomes a king. The dénouement contains the catastrophe and the emotional climax. Retribution: Crime doesn’t pay. ||

The Five-Act Structure || This structure is like the Hollywood Model, which is seen below:||
|| || The Hollywood Model || A poem – acted out in the seven letters of Macbeth’s name The poem is acted out in seven letters of Macbeth’s name: seven lines, seven events from the plot:

Meeting three Witches on the blasted heath

Ambition grew and poisoned brave Macbeth.
Cunning, his wife led him to stab the king,
Banquo was next. His Ghost spoiled everything.
Evil now reigned as Macbeth killed all dead,
Tyranny ended when Macduff saw red.
Hope came with Malcolm, Macbeth lost his head.


Genre Vocabulary

  • Catastrophe: Katastrofe: The final event of a tragedy, in which the protagonist dies (in Macbeth: Macbeth dies)
  • Climax: Klimaks/højdepunkt: The point at which the intensity of the emotions of the audience reach a peak
  • Complication: Forvikling
  • Cunning: Listig (some would say that Lady Macbeth is cunning)
  • Dénouement: Afsløring
  • Exposition: Redegørelse (The opening stage of a play)
  • Offstage: I kulissen (scenen “finder sted” i kulissen – publikum ser ikke den specifikke scene)
  • Resolution: Opløsning
  • Retribution: Gengældelse – “Crime doesn’t pay” (Macbeth is killed)

Journaling Questions
Act One Questions
  1. 1. What is the point of the first scene literally and in reference to the whole play?

  2. 2. What does Duncan call Macbeth when he hears Macbeth has defeated Macdonwald?

  3. 3. Who is sentenced to death?

  4. 4. What do the witches predict in I.iii for Macbeth? For Banquo?

  5. 5. What news does Ross bring Macbeth?

  6. 6. Banquo, like Macbeth, is surprised that the witches have predicted Macbeth's new title. He is, however, leery. What does he say about the motives of the “instruments of darkness”?

  7. 7. Malcolm describes Cawdor's last moments before execution. What is Duncan's reply?

  8. 8. Macbeth says, “Stars, hide your fires, Let not light see my black and deep desires.” What are Macbeth's desires?

  9. 9. After Lady Macbeth reads the letter, what does she tell us is her opinion of Macbeth, and how does she plan to help him?

  10. 10. What is Lady Macbeth's “prayer” to the spirits after she learns Duncan is coming”?

  11. 11. What advice does Lady Macbeth give Macbeth when he arrives home?

  12. 12. What are Macbeth's arguments to himself against killing Duncan?

  13. 13. What arguments does Lady Macbeth use to convince Macbeth to commit the murder?

  14. 14. What is Lady Macbeth's plan?

Act II Questions
  1. 15. What is Macbeth's lie to Banquo about the witches' predictions?

  2. 16. What is the signal Lady Macbeth is to give Macbeth to let him know that she has taken care of the guards (grooms)?

  3. 17. What excuse does Lady Macbeth give for not killing Duncan herself?

  4. 18. After Macbeth kills Duncan, he goes to Lady Macbeth and is concerned about not being able to say “Amen.” What is her advice to him?

  5. 19. Then, Macbeth is worried about hearing a voice saying, “Macbeth does murder sleep.” What does Lady Macbeth then tell him to do?

  6. 20. Why won't Macbeth take the daggers back to the scene of the crime?

  7. 21. Who was knocking?

  8. 22. What three things does drinking provoke?

  9. 23. How does Lennox describe the night, and what is Macbeth's response?

  10. 24. What did Macduff discover?

  11. 25. Macduff says, “Oh, gentle lady, 'Tis not for you to hear what I can speak. The repetition, in a woman's ear, Would murder as it fell.” What is ironic about this?

  12. 26. What excuse or explanation did Macbeth give for killing the guards (grooms)? What is his real reason?

  13. 27. Why do Malcolm and Donalbain leave?

  14. 28. Why does Ross not believe Malcolm and Donalbain were responsible for Duncan's murder?

Act III Questions
  1. 29. Why does Macbeth want Banquo and Fleance dead?

  2. 30. What is Macbeth's plan for killing Banquo and Fleance? Does it work?

  3. 31. Macbeth says, “The worm that's fled Hath nature that in time will venom breed, No teeth for the present.” What does that mean?

  4. 32. Who (what) did Macbeth see at the banquet table?

  5. 33. How does Lady Macbeth cover for Macbeth at the banquet? What excuses does she give for his wild talk?

  6. 34. Who else was missing from the banquet table (besides Banquo)?

  7. 35. Macbeth says, “I am in blood Stepped in so far that should I wade no more, Returning were as tedious as go o'er.” What does he mean?

  8. 36. What does Hecate want the witches to do?

  9. 37. What does Lennox think about Macbeth, Fleance, and Duncan's sons?

Act IV Questions
  1. 38. Witch 2 says, “By the pricking of my thumb, Something wicked this way comes.” Who comes?

  2. 39. What is Macbeth's attitude towards the witches this time?

  3. 40. What four things did the witches show Macbeth? What does each show/say? What is

  4. 41. Macbeth's reaction?

  5. 42. Macbeth says (about the witches), “Infected be the air whereon they ride, And damned all those that trust them!” What is Macbeth, in effect, saying about himself?

  6. 43. Where is Macduff?

  7. 44. Why does Macbeth have Macduff's family and servants killed?

  8. 45. Why does Lady Macduff's son say liars and swearers are fools?

  9. 46. Malcolm says, “Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell. Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, Yet grace must still look so.” What does that mean? Macduff says, “Oh, Scotland, Scotland!” Why?

  10. 47. What news does Ross bring to Macduff?

Act V Questions
  1. 48. What do the doctor and gentlewoman see Lady Macbeth doing? What do they decide to do?

  2. 49. What does Macbeth want the doctor to do for his wife?

  3. 50. What trick does Malcolm use to hide the number of men in his army?

  4. 51. Malcolm says, “And none serve with him but constrained things Whose hearts are absent, too.” What does that mean?

  5. 52. What is Macbeth's reaction to Lady Macbeth's death?

  6. 53. What is Macbeth's reaction to the news that Birnam Wood is moving?

  7. 54. Who first fights Macbeth? What happens?

  8. 55. Macbeth says to Macduff, “But get thee back, my soul is too much charged With blood of thine already.” To what is he referring?

  9. 56. When does Macbeth know he's in trouble?

  10. 57. How does Macbeth die?

  11. 58. Who will be King of Scotland?